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Beaumont, John (c. 1640–1731), natural philosopher and collector of geological specimens, spent most of his life at Ston Easton, Somerset, where he practised medicine. He befriended the miners working in the nearby Mendip hills, with whom he explored newly discovered caverns and rock formations. Stimulated by ...

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James Francis Kyle (1788–1869) by unknown engraver, pubd 1867 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Kyle, James Francis (1788–1869), vicar apostolic of the northern district of Scotland and historical collector, was born at Quarryholes, near Abbeyhill, in Edinburgh, on 22 September 1788, the eldest son of the four children of James Kyle (d. 1799), commissioner of roads and bridges for the ...

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John Lumley, first Baron Lumley (c. 1533–1609) unknown artist, c. 1570–79 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Lumley, John, first Baron Lumley (c. 1533–1609), collector and conspirator, was the only son of George Lumley (d. 1537) [see under Lumley, John, fifth Baron Lumley 1492, 1545], conspirator, of Thwing, East Riding of Yorkshire, and his wife, Jane (d...

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Townley, Charles (1737–1805), collector of antiquities, was born on 1 October 1737 at Towneley Hall, near Burnley, Lancashire, the eldest in the family of three sons and a younger daughter of William Towneley (1714–1742) and his wife, Cecilia (1714–1777), the fifth daughter and eventual heir of ...

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Charles Townley (1737–1805) by Johan Zoffany, 1781–3 [[Standing, left to right] Charles Greville (1794–1865), Thomas Astle (1735–1803); [Seated, left to right] Pierre Hughes, ] Towneley Hall Art Gallery & Museum, Burnley / Bridgeman Art Library