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Aaronson, Lazarus (1895–1966), poet and educationist, was born at 34 Great Pearl Street, Spitalfields, London, on 18 February 1895, the son of Louis Aaronson, master bootmaker, and his wife, Sarah, née Kowalski. His parents were impoverished Jewish immigrants from Vilna in the Pale...

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Abendana, Isaac (d. 1699), Hebraist and book collector, was born in Spain and was taken at an early age to Hamburg, Germany. By 1660 he had completed rabbinical studies and by his own account sought the 'wisdom of medicine' (Katz...

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Abraham, Roy Clive (1890–1963), scholar of African languages and colonial administrator, was born on 16 December 1890 in Melbourne, Australia, the second son of Isaac Abraham (1849-1918) and his wife Amy nee Soloman (b. 1861). From a Jewish background, he studied at ...

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Abrahams, Barnett (1831–1863), college head, was born in Warsaw, Poland, eldest child of Abraham Susman (c.1801–1880), known as Abraham Abrahams, and his second wife, Esther Reisel. His father, a leading authority on Jewish religious slaughter, settled in England in 1839 and was joined by his wife and son two years later. Two further sons were born in 1843 and 1844....

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Israel Abrahams (1858–1925) by Isaac Cohen Liberal Jewish Synagogue

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Abrahams, Israel (1858–1925), Jewish scholar and historian, was born on 26 November 1858 at 10 Finsbury Square, London, the second son in the family of four sons and two daughters of Barnett Abrahams (1831–1863) and his wife, Jane, née Brandon (1834–1895). His father was principal of ...

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Abrahams, Louis Barnett (1839–1918), headmaster, was born on 3 October 1839 at Swansea, the son of Barnett Abrahams (1785–1868) and his second wife, Hannah (fl. 1820–1868), the daughter of Locabel Levy of Lissa, Poland. There was also one daughter of this marriage. His father took the position of ...

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Abrams, Mark Alexander [formerly Max Alexander Abramowitz] (1906–1994), social scientist, was born at 57 Balfour Road, Edmonton, London, on 27 April 1906, one of eight children born to Abraham (Abram) Abramowitz, also known as Abramovich or Abrams, and his wife, Annie (Hannah), ...

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Abramsky, Yehezkel (1886–1976), rabbinic scholar and Orthodox Jewish leader, was born on or about 7 February 1886 in Dashkovtsy, near Most and Grodno, Lithuania, the third child and eldest son of Mordecai Zalman Abramsky, a local timber merchant, and his wife, Freydel Goldin...

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Aguilar, Grace (1816–1847), writer on Jewish history and religion and novelist, was born on 2 June 1816 in Hackney, Middlesex, the eldest of the three children of Emanuel Aguilar (1787–1845), merchant, and his wife, Sarah (d. 1854), daughter of Jacob Dias Fernandez...

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Samuel Alexander (1859–1938) by Francis Dodd, 1932 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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John Laird

revised by Michael A. Weinstein

Alexander, Samuel (1859–1938), philosopher, the third son and fourth child of Samuel Alexander, an Australian, and his wife, Eliza Sloman, who came from Cape Town, was born at Sydney, New South Wales, on 6 January 1859. His father, a saddler, died of consumption at the age of thirty-eight, shortly before his birth. His mother died in his house at ...

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Alfonsi, Petrus (fl. 1106–1126), scholar and translator of scientific works, was born in northern Spain, to Jewish parents. He was baptized a Christian on 29 June 1106 in Huesca, Aragon, with the names of the apostle on whose feast day the baptism took place and of his godfather, ...

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Angel, Moses (1817/18–1898), headmaster and journal editor, was one of the eleven children of Emmanuel Moses (d. 1841), a publican, and his wife, Sarah. At some stage he transposed his name from Angel Moses to Moses Angel, probably in 1839 when his father was convicted at the ...

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Badian, Ernst (1925–2011), historian of ancient Greece and Rome, was born on 8 August 1925 in Vienna, the only child of Josef (Joseph) Badian (1893–1965), bank clerk, and his wife, Salka (Sally), née Horinger (1894–1965). Jewish by descent, he experienced the organized anti-Jewish mob violence of ...

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A. S. Fulton

revised by J. B. Katz

Barnett, Lionel David (1871–1960), orientalist, was born in Liverpool on 21 October 1871, the eldest son of Baron Barnett, banker, and his wife, Adelaide Cowan. He was educated at the high school, institute, and University College, Liverpool. He went up to Trinity College, Cambridge...

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Beer, Esmond Samuel de (1895–1990), historian and benefactor, was born on 15 September 1895 in Dunedin, South Island, New Zealand, the second son and fourth and youngest child of Isidore Samuel de Beer (1860–1934), merchant, and his wife, Emily (1864–1930), daughter of Bendix Hallenstein...

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Max Beloff, Baron Beloff (1913–1999) by Sydney O'Meara, 1976 Getty Images – Sydney O'Meara

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Beloff, Max, Baron Beloff (1913–1999), historian, was born on 2 July 1913 at 21 York House, Fieldway Crescent, Islington, London, the elder son in a family of five children of Simon Beloff, general merchant, and his wife, Marie, née Katzin. Nora Beloff and ...

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Sidney Lee

revised by Roger T. Stearn

Benisch, Abraham (1811–1878), Hebraist and newspaper editor, was born to Jewish parents at Drossau, a small town 8 miles south-west of Klattau in Bohemia. About 1836 he studied surgery at Prague University where, with other Jewish students, he formed an organization for re-establishing Jewish independence in ...