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Armstrong, Wallace Edwin (1896–1980), anthropologist and economist, was born on 24 February 1896 at 2 Deerbrook Road, Norwood, London, the second of three sons of William Wallace Armstrong, a civil servant with the Local Government Board, and his wife, Alice Imeson of Herne Hill, London...

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Bauer, Peter Thomas, Baron Bauer (1915–2002), economist, was born on 6 November 1915 in Budapest, the son of Aladár Dezsö Bauer (1883–1944), bookmaker, and his wife, Anna, née Grossmann. He attended the Scholae Piae (a Gymnasium of the Piarist order) and enrolled for a law degree at the ...

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Peter Thomas Bauer, Baron Bauer (1915–2002) by Nick Sinclair, 1992 © Nick Sinclair; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Clark, Colin Grant (1905–1989), economist, was born on 2 November 1905 in London, the eldest in the family of three sons and one daughter of James Clark, a merchant of Scottish descent, who worked in South Africa, and his wife, Marion Jolly, who had travelled to ...

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Devas, Charles Stanton (1848–1906), political economist, was born on 26 August 1848 at Long Ditton, Surrey, the second son of William Devas (d. 1870), a merchant, later of Old Windsor, Berkshire, and his wife, Martha Anne (d. 1894), daughter of Charles Stanton...

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Dow, (John) Christopher Roderick (1916–1998), economist, was born on 25 February 1916 at 6 Wordsworth Crescent, Harrogate, West Riding of Yorkshire, the son of Warrender Beganie Dow, company secretary, and his wife, Amy Langdon Grimwade. He was educated at Bootham School, York, at ...

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Sir (Henry) Roy Forbes Harrod (1900–1978) by Walter Bird, 1963 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Harrod, Sir (Henry) Roy Forbes (1900–1978), economist, was born in London on 13 February 1900, the only child of Henry Dawes Harrod (d. 1918), a solicitor and a member of the London metals exchange, and his wife, Frances Marie Desirée, who was one of the eleven children of ...

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Hewins, William Albert Samuel (1865–1931), economist and politician, was born on 11 May 1865 near Wolverhampton, the second son and fourth of the ten children of Samuel Hewins (1833–1899), iron merchant, and his wife, Caroline (d. 1901), daughter of John Green of ...

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William Albert Samuel Hewins (1865–1931) by F. A. Swaine © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Mongredien, Augustus (1807–1888), corn merchant and political economist, was born in London, the son of John Adrien Mongredien, a French officer who had fled to England after Bonaparte's coup d'état in 1798 and was later described as an 'agriculturalist'. Educated at the Roman Catholic school at ...

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O'Duffy, Eimar Ultan (1893–1935), writer and political economist, was born on 29 September 1893 at 26 Gardiner Place, Dublin, the elder son of Kevin Emmet O'Duffy, a prominent dentist, and his wife, Pauline, née Campbell. His grandfather John O'Duffy had been the founder (with others) of the ...

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Eimar Ultan O'Duffy (1893–1935) by Lafayette, 1926 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Ernst Friedrich Schumacher (1911–1977) by Sophie Baker © Sophie Baker

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Schumacher, Ernst Friedrich [Fritz] (1911–1977), economist and writer, was born in Bonn, Germany, on 16 August 1911, the third of the five children of Hermann Albert Schumacher (1868–1952), professor of economics at Bonn and Berlin universities, and his wife, Edith Zitelmann (1884–1975). Having been educated at the ...

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Spencer, Oscar Alan (1913–1993), colonial administrator and economist, was born in Eastleigh, Hampshire, on 12 December 1913. He was probably born Oscar Alan Peixoto, at 22 Doncaster Road, Eastleigh, the son of Oscar Peixoto (1884–1914), manager of a correspondence school in Madrid, and his wife, ...

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Walsh, Richard Hussey (1825–1862), economist, born at Kilduff, Tyrrellspass, King's county, and baptized at Philipstown (now Daingean) Roman Catholic Church in King's county on 3 August 1825, was the fifth son of John Hussey Walsh of Kilduff and his wife, Maria, daughter of ...

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Ward [married name Jackson], Barbara Mary, Baroness Jackson of Lodsworth (1914–1981), journalist and economist, was born on 23 May 1914 in Malton Road, Heworth, Yorkshire, the second child and only daughter of Walter Ward, a solicitor, and his wife, Teresa Mary Burge...

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Barbara Mary Ward, Baroness Jackson of Lodsworth (1914–1981) by Rodrigo Moynihan © Foundation Rodrigo Moynihan / private collection; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London