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Higgins, Bryan (c. 1741–1818), medical practitioner and chemist, was born in Sligo, Ireland, the son of Bryan Higgins (d. 1777), medical practitioner; little is known about his education. As his family, eminent in medicine, was Roman Catholic, he probably attended irregular ‘hedge schools’. It was customary for Irish Catholic students to go abroad for higher education, and on 5 October 1765 he enrolled at the ...

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Higgins, William (1763?–1825), chemist, was probably born in Collooney, co. Sligo, in 1763, the son of Thomas Higgins (c.1739–c.1790), physician. By 1784 he had gone to London, where his uncle and patron, Bryan Higgins, was established as a doctor and chemist with a laboratory in ...

Article

Howard, Edward Charles (1774–1816), chemist, was born on 28 May 1774 at Darnell Hall, near Sheffield, the youngest of three sons of Henry Howard of Glossop (1713–1787), estate manager to his relative, the ninth duke of Norfolk, and his wife, Juliana (d...

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J. T. Gilbert

revised by W. H. Brock

Kane, Sir Robert John (1809–1890), chemist and educationist, was born at 48 Henry Street, Dublin, on 24 September 1809, the son of John Kane, a manufacturing chemist. He was educated at Trinity College, Dublin (1828–35), and studied medical and practical science in both ...

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Kirwan, Richard (1733–1812), chemist and mineralogist, was born at Cloghballymore House, near Kinvara, co. Galway, Ireland, the second son of Martin Kirwan (d. 1741) of Cregg Castle, near Corrundulla, and his wife, Mary, daughter of Patrick French. After the death of his father he was placed in the care of his maternal grandparents at ...

Article

T. E. James

revised by Robert Sharp

O'Sullivan, Cornelius (1841–1907), brewing chemist, was born in Bandon, co. Cork, on 20 December 1841, one of three boys and four girls born to James O'Sullivan, merchant, and his wife, Elizabeth Morgan. His brief primary schooling was at Denny Holland's private school, followed by some years at ...

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Max Ferdinand Perutz (1914–2002) by Graham Wood, 1987 The Times / NI Syndication ; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Perutz, Max Ferdinand (1914–2002), chemist and molecular biologist, was born on 19 May 1914 in Vienna, the only son of Hugo Perutz, textile industrialist, and his wife, Adèle. He was educated at Vienna's Theresianum after which he elected to study organic and inorganic chemistry at the ...

Article

Taylor, Frank Sherwood (1897–1956), chemist and historian of science, was born on 26 November 1897 at Bickley, Bromley, Kent, the son of Seaton Frank Taylor (1844–1930), a prosperous solicitor, and his wife, Helen Sennerth Davidson. He was educated at Sherborne School and won a classical scholarship at ...