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Arthur Aikin (1773–1854) by William Brockedon, 1826 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Aikin, Arthur (1773–1854), natural scientist and author, was born on 19 May 1773 at Warrington, Lancashire, the eldest son of John Aikin (1747–1822) and his wife, Martha (c.1746–1830), daughter of Arthur Jennings of Cheapside, London. His brothers were Charles Rochemont Aikin...

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Bowman, John Eddowes, the younger (1819–1856), chemist, was born at Welshpool in north Wales on 7 July 1819, the fourth son of John Eddowes Bowman the elder (1785–1841), banker and naturalist, and his wife, Elizabeth Eddowes (1788–1859), daughter of William Eddowes of Shrewsbury...

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C. H. Desch

revised by Anita McConnell

Carpenter, Sir (Henry Cort) Harold (1875–1940), metallurgist, was born at Clifton, Bristol, on 6 February 1875, the second son of William Lant Carpenter, engineer, of Bristol, and his wife, Annie Grace Viret. He was a grandson of the naturalist William Benjamin Carpenter and a great-great-grandson of ...

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Draper, John William (1811–1882), chemist and historian, was born in St Helens, Lancashire, on 5 May 1811, the third child and only son of John Christopher Draper (d. 1828/9), a Wesleyan minister of Heptonstall, Yorkshire, and his wife, Sarah Ripley (d...

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Frankland, Sir Edward (1825–1899), chemist, was born on 18 January 1825 at Churchtown, Garstang, Lancashire, the son of Margaret Frankland (1797–1881), daughter of John Frankland (1770–1811), calico printer, and his wife, Molly (née Dunderdale). Frankland's father, to whom his mother was not married, was ...

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Sir Edward Frankland (1825–1899) by Lock & Whitfield, pubd 1880 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Henry, Thomas (1734–1816), apothecary and chemist, was born on 28 September 1734 at Wrexham, Wales, the third of five children and the second of three sons of William Henry. His parents kept a school but his father was best known as a dancing-master. Of his elder brother, ...

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William Henry (1774–1836) by Henry Cousins, pubd 1838 (after James Lonsdale, c. 1836) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Henry, William (1774–1836), chemist, was born at St Ann's Square, Manchester, on 12 December 1774. He was the third son of Thomas Henry (1734–1816), apothecary and chemist, and his wife, Mary, née Kinsey (d. 1805). His older brothers were Thomas (1767–1798) and ...

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Herapath, William (1796–1868), analytical chemist, was born on 26 May 1796 in Bristol, the son of William Herapath (d. c.1815), who conducted an extensive business as maltster and brewer in St Philip's out-parish. The younger Herapath exhibited an early interest in science and the mechanical arts, and was known in his family as ...

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Kirwan, Richard (1733–1812), chemist and mineralogist, was born at Cloghballymore House, near Kinvara, co. Galway, Ireland, the second son of Martin Kirwan (d. 1741) of Cregg Castle, near Corrundulla, and his wife, Mary, daughter of Patrick French. After the death of his father he was placed in the care of his maternal grandparents at ...

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Samuel Parkes (1761–1825) by Parker, pubd 1822 (after Abraham Wivell) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Alexander Gordon

revised by Frederick Kurzer

Parkes, Samuel (1761–1825), chemist, was born at Stourbridge, Worcestershire, on 26 May 1761, the eldest son of Samuel Parkes (1734/5–1811), a grocer, and his first wife, Hannah, daughter of William Mence of Stourbridge. He went to an infant school in Stourbridge, sharing classes for some months with ...

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Russell, William James (1830–1909), chemist and educationist, was born on 20 May 1830 at Gloucester, the third child of Thomas Pougher Russell (1775–1851), a banker at Gloucester, and his wife, Mary (1790–1877), fourth daughter of Colonel James Skey and his second wife, Eleanor...

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Arthur Smithells (1860–1939) by Walter Stoneman, 1921 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Smithells, Arthur (1860–1939), chemist, was born at Bury, Lancashire, on 24 May 1860, the third son of James Smithells, railway manager, and his wife, Martha, daughter of James Livesey. Both his parents were Unitarians and Smithells inherited their belief. In 1868 the family moved to ...

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G. A. J. Cole

revised by V. E. Chancellor

Solly, Edward (1819–1886), chemist, agronomist, and antiquary, was born in London, on 11 October 1819, the son of Edward Solly (c.1790–c.1847), a wealthy Baltic timber merchant of Berlin and St Mary Axe, London. Sarah Solly, who made a significant bequest to the ...