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Joseph Black (1728–1799) by Sir Henry Raeburn, c. 1790 © Hunterian Art Gallery, University of Glasgow

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Black, Joseph (1728–1799), chemist and physician, was born on 16 April 1728 in Bordeaux, the sixth of twelve children of John Black, an Ulsterman who was a factor in the wine trade, and his wife, Margaret Gordon (d. 1747). Black's brothers all became manufacturers or tradesmen of various kinds and all were unsuccessful in business. ...

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Alexander Crum Brown (1838–1922) by Andrew Swan Watson Wellcome Library, London

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Colin A. Russell

revised

Brown, Alexander Crum (1838–1922), chemist, was born in Edinburgh on 26 March 1838, the only son of a United Presbyterian minister, John Brown (1784–1858), and his second wife, Margaret Fisher Crum (d. 1841), sister of the chemist Walter Crum FRS (1796–1867) and a descendant of ...

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Garton, Sir Richard Charles (1857–1934), chemist and brewer, was born at 11 Richmond Place, Bedminster, Somerset, on 8 October 1857, the eldest of five sons of William Garton (1832–1905) a brewer, and his wife, Ellen Miller, née Littleton. William Garton's company, Garton Hill...

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Goodeve, Sir Charles Frederick (1904–1980), chemist and research administrator, was born on 21 February 1904 in Neepawa, Canada, the third of five children and the eldest of three sons of Frederick William Goodeve, an Anglican priest, and his wife, Emma Hand. When he was ten the family moved to ...

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Sir Arthur Harden (1865–1940) by Bassano, 1936 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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C. J. Martin

revised by Rachel E. Davies

Harden, Sir Arthur (1865–1940), chemist, was born in Manchester on 12 October 1865, the third of the nine children of Albert Tyas Harden, a Manchester manufacturer, and his wife, Eliza, daughter of John MacAlister, of Paisley. He was educated at Victoria Park School, Manchester...

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Kirwan, Richard (1733–1812), chemist and mineralogist, was born at Cloghballymore House, near Kinvara, co. Galway, Ireland, the second son of Martin Kirwan (d. 1741) of Cregg Castle, near Corrundulla, and his wife, Mary, daughter of Patrick French. After the death of his father he was placed in the care of his maternal grandparents at ...

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Le Févre, Nicaise [Nicasius, Nicolas] (c. 1610–1669), chemist, was born in Sedan, France, the son of Claude Le Févre (c.1569–c.1630), a protestant apothecary born in Rouen who settled in Sedan about 1597, and Françoise de Beaufort, daughter of a local family of apothecaries and physicians. ...

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Marcet, Alexander John Gaspard (1770–1822), physician and chemist, was born in Geneva, Switzerland, the only son of Marc Marcet (b. 1734), a merchant of Huguenot descent, and his wife, Louise-Marguerite, née Nadal. Educated in Geneva, Marcet was apprenticed in commerce but after two years he obtained his father's permission to study science. During the political disturbances in ...

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George Hevesy

revised by Joseph Gross

Paneth, Friedrich Adolf (1887–1958), chemist, was born on 31 August 1887 in Vienna, the second of the three sons of Joseph Paneth, a distinguished physiologist, and his wife, Sophie Schwab, the daughter of a leading industrialist. His mother was unusually well educated, and had a strong interest in the natural sciences and philosophy. Both his parents were of Jewish descent but he and his two brothers were brought up as protestants. He was educated at the ...

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Sir Henry Enfield Roscoe (1833–1915) by Horatio Nelson King © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Roscoe, Sir Henry Enfield (1833–1915), chemist and university administrator, was born on 7 January 1833 in London at 10 Powis Place, off Great Ormond Street, the first of two children of Henry Roscoe (1800–1836), legal writer and biographer, and Maria Fletcher (1798–1885), daughter of ...

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Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (1850–1885) by unknown artist © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Thomas, Sidney Gilchrist (1850–1885), metallurgist, was born on 16 April 1850 at Campanile Cottage, Canonbury Villas, Islington, London, the second of the four children of William Thomas (1808–1867), a Welsh clerk in the solicitor's department of the Inland Revenue office, and his wife, ...

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E. I. Carlyle

revised by Kevin C. Knox

Turner, Matthew (d. 1789?), chemist and radical theologian, was an established surgeon and teacher by 1760; little is known of his life before then. During his most productive years he worked and socialized in the non-Anglican milieu of England's north-western counties, his friends and colleagues including ...

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Wedgwood, Thomas (1771–1805), chemist, was born at Etruria Hall, Staffordshire, on 14 May 1771, the third and youngest surviving son of the potter Josiah Wedgwood (1730–1795) and his wife and cousin, Sarah Wedgwood (1734–1815). Together with his brother Jos, Tom was sent to school in ...

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George Wilson (1818–1859) by Thomas Rodger © National Portrait Gallery, London

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P. J. Hartog

revised by R. G. W. Anderson

Wilson, George (1818–1859), chemist and museum director, the son of Archibald Wilson (1784–1843), a wine merchant from Argyll, and his wife, Janet Aitken, was born at Edinburgh on 21 February 1818 with a twin brother, John, who died in 1836. His elder brother, ...