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Barton, John (1789–1852), political economist and botanist, was born on 11 June 1789 in Southwark, London, the son of John Barton (1755–1789) and his second wife, Elizabeth, née Horne (1760–1833). He was the half-brother of Maria Hack, children's writer, and Bernard Barton, poet. The elder ...

Article

Jennett Humphreys

revised by Anita McConnell

Chapman, John (1801–1854), engineer and political economist, was born at Loughborough, Leicestershire, on 20 January 1801, the eldest of the three surviving sons of John Chapman, clockmaker of that town. He received his education first at a school kept by Mr Mowbray, and then under the ...

Article

Flux, Sir Alfred William (1867–1942), economist, statistician, and civil servant, was born in Portsmouth on 8 April 1867, the only son of John Flux, a journeyman cement maker, and his wife, Emily, daughter of Alfred Prince, dairy farmer, of Newport, Isle of Wight...

Article

R. E. Anderson

revised by Anita McConnell

Hamilton, Robert (1743–1829), political economist and mathematician, was born in Edinburgh on 11 June 1743, the eighth son of Gavin Hamilton (1704–1767), bookseller and publisher, and his wife, Helen Balfour. His grandfather Dr William Hamilton (1669–1732) had been professor of divinity and principal in ...

Article

Holden, Sir Isaac, first baronet (1807–1897), inventor of a wool-combing machine, entrepreneur, and politician, was born on 7 May 1807 at Hurlet, near Paisley, the seventh child of Isaac Holden (d. 1826) and his wife, Alice, née Forrest. His father, a native of ...

Article

Levi, Leone (1821–1888), jurist, political economist, and statistician, was born on 6 June 1821 in Ancona, later part of the kingdom of Italy. He came from a middle-class Jewish family. His father, Isaac, and his elder brother were both merchants. Leone received a practical, commercial education and began working for his brother at the age of fifteen. He travelled to ...

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Leone Levi (1821–1888) by Elliott & Fry, 1873 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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John Lubbock, first Baron Avebury (1834–1913) by Barraud, pubd 1889 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Lubbock, John, first Baron Avebury (1834–1913), banker, politician, and scientific writer, was born on 30 April 1834 at 29 Eaton Place, London, the eldest of eleven children of Sir John William Lubbock, third baronet (1803–1865), and his wife, Harriet Hotham (d. 1873)...

Article

Marcet, Jane Haldimand (1769–1858), writer on science and political economy, was born in London, one of twelve children and only surviving daughter of the Swiss merchant and banker Anthony Francis Haldimand (1740/41–1817) and his wife, Jane (d. 1785). She was baptized on 23 June 1769. The ...

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Jane Haldimand Marcet (1769–1858) by unknown engraver Edgar Fahs Smith Collection, University of Pennsylvania Library

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Monson, Sir John, second baronet (1599–1683), politician and financier of fen drainage, was born in St Sepulchre, London, the eldest son of Sir Thomas Monson, first baronet (1563/4–1641), of South Carlton in Lincolnshire, and his wife, Margaret (1569–1630), daughter of Sir Edmund Anderson...

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Nichol, John Pringle (1804–1859), astronomer and political economist, was the eldest of seven children of John Nichol, a farmer from Northumberland, and Jane Forbes of Ellon, Aberdeenshire. Born on 13 January 1804 at Huntlyhill, Forfarshire, 4 miles north-east of Brechin, he was educated at ...

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Playfair, William (1759–1823), inventor of statistical graphs and writer on political economy, was born on 22 September 1759 at the manse, Liff, near Dundee, the fifth of eight children of the Revd James Playfair (1712–1772), of the parish of Liff and Benvie, and ...

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Rooke, John (1780–1856), political economist and geologist, was born in Aikton, near Carlisle, on 29 August 1780, the eldest son of John Rooke, surveyor and a small landowner of the kind known locally as a ‘statesman’, and his wife, Peggy. He attended the village primary school and ...

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Scrope, George Julius Poulett [formerly George Julius Thomson] (1797–1876), geologist and political economist, was born in London on 10 March 1797. Baptized George Julius Thomson at St Peter-le-Poer in the City of London on 11 May 1797, he was the second son of the ...

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George Julius Poulett Scrope (1797–1876) by John Samuelson Templeton, pubd 1848 (after Eden Upton Eddis) Ashmolean Museum, Oxford

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Spence, William (bap. 1782, d. 1860), political economist and entomologist, was baptized on 1 October 1782 at All Saints, Bishop Burton, Yorkshire, the son of Robert Spence, husbandman, and his wife, Anna. He received his early education in natural history from the Revd Robert Rigby...