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Adamson, Daniel (1820–1890), engineer and entrepreneur, was born on 30 April 1820 at Shildon, co. Durham. He was the thirteenth of fifteen children, seven sons and eight daughters, born to Daniel Adamson, landlord of the Grey Horse at Shildon, and his wife, Ann...

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Baily, Francis (1774–1844), stockbroker and astronomer, was born at Newbury, Berkshire, on 28 April 1774, the third son of Richard Baily (1744–1814), a banker, and his wife, Sarah Head (1745–1823). At the age of fourteen, following his education at the old grammar school in ...

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Francis Baily (1774–1844) by Thomas Goff Lupton (after Thomas Phillips, 1837) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bamford, Joseph Cyril (1916–2001), engineer and businessman, was born on 21 June 1916 at The Parks, New Road, Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, the son of Cyril Joseph Bamford, agricultural engineer, and his wife, Dolores Alice, née Turner. His family controlled and managed a long-established farm machinery business. The company, which manufactured balers and other equipment, had been started by his great-great-grandfather in 1812. He was brought up a Roman Catholic. After education at ...

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Joseph Cyril Bamford (1916–2001) by Lucinda Douglas-Menzies, 1989 © Lucinda Douglas-Menzies; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Barton, John (1789–1852), political economist and botanist, was born on 11 June 1789 in Southwark, London, the son of John Barton (1755–1789) and his second wife, Elizabeth, née Horne (1760–1833). He was the half-brother of Maria Hack, children's writer, and Bernard Barton, poet. The elder ...

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Brodie, John Leopold [formerly Leopold Janno Braude] (1873–1945), businessman and inventor, was by his own account born in Riga (at that time in the Russian empire) on 10 June 1873, the son of a railway builder (Buffalo Courier Express, 22 August 1926...

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Cornelius Walford

revised by Robert Brown

Brown, Samuel (1811–1875), actuary and statistician, was born in London on 24 March 1811, the second son in the family of five sons and two daughters of John Aquila Brown (d. 1830), a silversmith, and his wife, Ann Eliza, née Truss (...

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Jennett Humphreys

revised by Anita McConnell

Chapman, John (1801–1854), engineer and political economist, was born at Loughborough, Leicestershire, on 20 January 1801, the eldest of the three surviving sons of John Chapman, clockmaker of that town. He received his education first at a school kept by Mr Mowbray, and then under the ...

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Cronshaw, Cecil John Turrell (1889–1961), industrial chemist and businessman, was born on 13 June 1889 at Heywood in Lancashire, the son of William Robert Cronshaw, a commercial traveller, and his wife, Anne Elizabeth, née Turrell. He was educated at Bury grammar school and apprenticed for a time to ...

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Dame Hilary Mary Cropper (1941–2004) by Terry O'Neill, c. 2000 Getty Images

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Cropper [née Trueman], Dame Hilary Mary (1941–2004), businesswoman, was born on 9 January 1941 at 6 Oldham Street, Bollington, near Macclesfield, Cheshire, the daughter of Arnold Trueman, a commercial clerk then serving as an aircraftsman second class in the RAF, and his wife, ...

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Curry, Dennis (1912–2001), businessman and geologist, was born on 18 May 1912 at 27 Lorne Road, Leicester, the oldest child in the family of three sons and three daughters of Albert Curry (1886–1950), cycle manufacturer, and his wife, Edith Ada, née Baxter. He was educated at ...

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Devons, Ely (1913–1967), statistician and economist, was born in Bangor, north Wales, on 29 July 1913, the second eldest in a family of three boys and three girls of David Isaac Devons, a Jewish minister from Vilna who had arrived in Britain in 1902 on a Russian passport at the age of twenty-one, and his wife, ...

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G. J. Gray

revised by Anita McConnell

Dodson, James (c. 1705–1757), mathematician and actuary, was the son of John Dodson (b. 1675), citizen and freeman of the Merchant Taylors' Company, and his wife, Elizabeth, who died shortly after his birth. His grandfather, also John Dodson, was a tailor of ...

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Edgeworth, Francis Ysidro (1845–1926), economist and statistician, was born on 8 February 1845 at Edgeworthstown in co. Longford, the fifth and last son of Francis Beaufort Edgeworth (1809–1846), and his wife, Rosa Florentina (1815–1864), daughter of General Antonio Eroles, an exile from the absolutist ...

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Francis Ysidro Edgeworth (1845–1926) by Walter Stoneman, 1917 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Ehrenberg, Andrew Samuel Christopher (1926–2010), statistician and marketing scientist, was born in Bochum, Germany, on 1 May 1926 into a remarkably talented Jewish family. His father, the Revd Hans Philip Ehrenberg (1883–1958), was the outspoken pastor of Pauluskirche in Bochum at the time of the Nazis' seizure of power, one of the co-founders of the ...

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Sir (Harold) Montague Finniston (1912–1991) by Godfrey Argent Studios Godfrey Argent Studios / Royal Society

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Finniston, Sir (Harold) Montague [Monty] (1912–1991), metallurgist and businessman, was born at 26 Aikenhead Road, Govanhill, Glasgow, on 15 August 1912, the eldest child in the family of two sons and three daughters of Robert Finniston and his wife, Esther, née Diamond. Both parents were Russian-Jewish immigrants; the original family name was ...