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Beaufort, Edmund, first duke of Somerset (c. 1406–1455), magnate and soldier, was the younger brother of John Beaufort, duke of Somerset (1404–1444); John and Edmund were the second and third sons of John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset and of Somerset (c. 1371–1410), who was the eldest son of ...

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Beaufort, Edmund, styled third duke of Somerset (c. 1438–1471), magnate, was the second of the three sons of Edmund Beaufort, first duke of Somerset (d. 1455), and his wife, Eleanor, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (1382–1439), and widow of Thomas, Baron Ros of Helmsley...

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Beaufort, Henry, second duke of Somerset (1436–1464), magnate, was born early in 1436, the eldest son of Edmund Beaufort, first duke of Somerset (d. 1455), and his wife, Eleanor, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (d. 1439), and widow of Thomas, Baron Ros...

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Beaufort [married names Ferrers, Neville], Joan, countess of Westmorland (1379?–1440), magnate, was the youngest of the four children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and his mistress, Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403) [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster].

The dates of birth of all four children are uncertain, though there may be some significance in the pattern of gifts from ...

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Beaufort, John, duke of Somerset (1404–1444), magnate and soldier, was the second son of John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset and of Somerset (d. 1410), and Margaret Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent. He succeeded to the earldom of Somerset on the death of his elder brother, ...

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Beaufort, Thomas, duke of Exeter (1377?–1426), magnate and soldier, was the youngest of the three illegitimate sons of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster, and Katherine Swynford [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster]. His brothers were John Beaufort and Henry Beaufort...

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Edmund of Almain, second earl of Cornwall (1249–1300), magnate, was born at his father's castle of Berkhamsted on 26 December 1249, as the second and only surviving son of Richard, first earl of Cornwall (1209–1272), brother of Henry III, and his wife Sanchia (...

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Edmund [Edmund of Woodstock], first earl of Kent (1301–1330), magnate, was the sixth son of Edward I (1239–1307) and the second from Edward's second marriage, to Margaret (1279?–1318), daughter of Philippe III, king of France (d. 1285). He was born on 5 August 1301 at ...

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Edward [Edward of Langley, Edward of York], second duke of York (c. 1373–1415), magnate, the eldest son of Edmund (1341–1402), the fifth son of Edward III, and Isabella of Castile (d. 1393), second daughter of Pedro the Cruel (r. 1350–69) and his mistress ...

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Henry of Lancaster, third earl of Lancaster and third earl of Leicester (c. 1280–1345), magnate, was the second son of Edmund (Crouchback), earl of Lancaster (1245–1296), the youngest son of Henry III, and Blanche (d. 1302), daughter of Robert, count of Artois...

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William Longespée, third earl of Salisbury (b. in or before 1167, d. 1226) tomb effigy © English Heritage. NMR

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Longespée [Lungespée], William, third earl of Salisbury (b. in or before 1167, d. 1226), magnate, was the natural son of Henry II and Ida de Tosny, probably the daughter of Roger (III) de Tosny, a powerful Anglo-Norman lord, and his wife, also Ida...

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Reginald, earl of Cornwall (d. 1175), magnate, was the illegitimate son of Henry I and Sibyl, daughter of Robert Corbet. It has been generally assumed that he was the Reginald de Dunstanville who held considerable lands in Wiltshire for which he had exemption from geld in 1130, but the ...

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Richard [Richard of Conisbrough], earl of Cambridge (1385–1415), magnate, the second son in the family of Edmund of Langley, first duke of York (1341–1402), and his first wife, Isabella of Castile (1355–1392) [see under Edmund, first duke of York], daughter and coheir of ...

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Richard of York, third duke of York (1411–1460), magnate and claimant to the English throne, was the only son of Richard of Conisbrough, fourth earl of Cambridge (1385–1415), and Anne Mortimer (b. after 1388, d. before 1414), daughter of Roger (VII) Mortimer, ...

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Richard of York, third duke of York (1411–1460) painted glass the master and fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge

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Robert, first earl of Gloucester (b. before 1100, d. 1147), magnate, was the illegitimate son of Henry I, king of England, and a woman identifiable as a member of the Gay family of Hampton and Northbrook, Oxfordshire. Probably the king's eldest bastard, he was born several years before his father's accession to the throne in 1100, the issue of one of at least three liaisons which ...

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Thomas of Lancaster, second earl of Lancaster, second earl of Leicester, and earl of Lincoln (c. 1278–1322), magnate, was the eldest son of Edmund, earl of Lancaster and Leicester (1245–1296), second surviving son of Henry III, and of Blanche (d. 1302), widow of ...

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Thomas [Thomas of Brotherton], first earl of Norfolk (1300–1338), magnate, was the fifth son of Edward I (1239–1307) and the first from Edward's second marriage, to Margaret (1279?–1318), daughter of Philippe III, king of France (d. 1285); he was thus the elder of the two half-brothers of ...

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Thomas of Lancaster, second earl of Lancaster, second earl of Leicester, and earl of Lincoln (c. 1278–1322) manuscript painting [[Left to right] and St George (d. c.303?)] © Bodleian Library, University of Oxford