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Campbell, Archibald, seventh earl of Argyll (1575/6–1638), magnate and politician, was the elder surviving son of Colin Campbell, sixth earl of Argyll (c. 1542–1584), and his second wife, Lady Annas or Agnes Keith (c. 1540–1588), eldest daughter of William Keith, fourth Earl Marischal...

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Archibald Campbell, seventh earl of Argyll (1575/66–1638) by unknown artist in a private Scottish collection

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Campbell, John [called Iain Glas], first earl of Breadalbane and Holland (1634–1717), magnate and politician, was born on 29 May 1634 at Stronmillochan, Glenorchy, Argyll, the eldest son of Sir John Campbell of Glenorchy, fourth baronet (d. 1686), and his first wife, ...

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John Campbell, first earl of Breadalbane and Holland (1634–1717) by Sir John Baptiste de Medina Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Cecil, Robert, first earl of Salisbury (1563–1612), politician and courtier, was born on 1 June 1563 at Cecil House, Strand, Westminster, the second surviving child and only son of William Cecil, first Baron Burghley (1520/21–1598), statesman, then secretary of state and from 1572 lord treasurer, and his second wife, ...

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Robert Cecil, first earl of Salisbury (1563–1612) by John de Critz the elder The Marquess of Salisbury. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Conway, Francis Seymour-, first marquess of Hertford (1718–1794), courtier and politician, was born on 5 July 1718 in Lindsey House, Chelsea, Middlesex, the son and heir of Francis Seymour-Conway, first Baron Conway of Ragley (1679–1732), politician, and his third wife, Charlotte (d...

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Erskine, John, eighteenth or second earl of Mar (c. 1562–1634), courtier and politician, was the eldest son of John Erskine, seventeenth or first earl of Mar (d. 1572), and his wife, Annabella Murray (d. 1603). His extensive estates were mainly in Stirlingshire...

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John Erskine, eighteenth or second earl of Mar (c. 1562–1634) attrib. Adam de Colone, 1626 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Gordon, George, first marquess of Huntly (1561/2–1636), magnate and politician, was the son of George Gordon, fifth earl of Huntly (d. 1576), and his wife, Lady Anne Hamilton (d. after 1574), daughter of James Hamilton, second earl of Arran and duke of Châtelherault...

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Grahme, James (1650–1730), courtier and politician, was born at Norton Conyers, Yorkshire, in March 1650 and baptized on 3 April, the second son of Sir George Grahme, baronet (c.1624–1658), of Netherby, Cumberland, and his wife, Lady Mary Johnston, second daughter of ...

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Sir Christopher Hatton (c. 1540–1591) by Nicholas Hilliard, c. 1588–91 V&A Images, The Victoria and Albert Museum

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Hatton, Sir Christopher (c. 1540–1591), courtier and politician, was the second son of William Hatton (d. 1547) of Holdenby, Northamptonshire, and Alice, daughter of Lawrence Saunders. The family were lesser gentry with modest resources. Hatton entered St Mary Hall, Oxford, c.1556–7, probably as a gentleman commoner, where ...

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Ruthven, William, fourth Lord Ruthven and first earl of Gowrie (c. 1543–1584), magnate and politician, was the second son of Patrick Ruthven, third Lord Ruthven (c. 1520–1566), and his first wife, Janet (d. 1555×7), an illegitimate daughter of Archibald Douglas, eighteenth earl of Angus...

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Scott, Walter Francis Montagu-Douglas-, fifth duke of Buccleuch and seventh duke of Queensberry (1806–1884), magnate and politician, born at Dalkeith House, Midlothian, Scotland, on 25 November 1806, was the second, but eldest surviving, son of Charles William Henry Montagu-Scott, fourth duke of Buccleuch...

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Walter Francis Montagu-Douglas- Scott, fifth duke of Buccleuch and seventh duke of Queensberry (1806–1884) by George Richmond, 1864 The Lord Montagu of Beaulieu. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London