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Alfonsi, Petrus (fl. 1106–1126), scholar and translator of scientific works, was born in northern Spain, to Jewish parents. He was baptized a Christian on 29 June 1106 in Huesca, Aragon, with the names of the apostle on whose feast day the baptism took place and of his godfather, ...

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Ferdinand, Philip (1556–1599), Hebrew and Arabic scholar, was born of Jewish parentage in Poland in 1556. In his youth he studied the Talmud in the traditional Jewish manner and, judging from his elegant Latin, his command of Greek, and his fine handwriting, also received a humanist education. After about 1580 he was in ...

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Harari [née Benenson], Manya (1905–1969), publisher and translator, was born at Baku, Russia, on 8 April 1905, the fourth child and youngest daughter of Grigory Benenson, a Jewish financier, and his wife, Sophie Goldberg. While Benenson amassed an enormous fortune Manya's childhood was spent amid the opulence of a rented top floor of ...

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Karpeles, Maud Pauline (1885–1976), folk music collector and scholar, was born on 12 November 1885 at Lancaster Gate, London, the third of five children of John N. Karpeles (d. 1926?), merchant and stockbroker, a naturalized German from Hamburg, and his wife, Emily Annette (1861–1914)...

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Maud Pauline Karpeles (1885–1976) by unknown photographer courtesy EFDSS

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David Wiggins and Francis Dunlop

Kolnai, Aurel Thomas (1900–1973), philosopher, was born on 5 December 1900 in Budapest, Hungary, the second son of Ármin Stein (b. 1858), a savings bank director, and his wife, Valéria Glück (b. 1871), both Liberal Jews. Kolnai completed his secondary education (1910–18) with distinction at the ...

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Alfred Hyman Louis (1829–1915) by Histed © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Louis, Alfred Hyman (1829–1915), scholar and visionary vagrant, was born in 1829 in Birmingham, the eldest son of Hyman Tobias (or Tobar) Louis, a well-to-do merchant, and his wife, Maria. At fifteen he entered King Edward's School, Birmingham, where he began long friendships with ...

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Markus, Robert Austin (1924–2010), historian and philosopher, was born Róbert Imre Márkus on 8 October 1924 in Budapest, Hungary, the son of Gyözö (Victor) Márkus (1897–1971), director of an engineering firm, and his wife, Lili (Lily), née Elek (1900–1962), artist. He attended the ...

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Raphael, Marco (fl. 1529–1534), Hebraist, was a Jewish convert to Christianity from Venice, where he was rewarded by the council of ten for inventing an improved brand of invisible ink. In 1529 he was recruited to the cause of Henry VIII's divorce by another Venetian, ...

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Redlich, Josef (1869–1936), scholar and politician, was born on 18 June 1869 at Göding (Hodonin), Moravia, the second of five children and younger son of Adolf Redlich (1839–1896), sugar manufacturer, and his wife, Rosa Fanto (d. 1908). Coming from a German-Jewish family background in a rural Slav area, he was sent to ...

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Tremellius, (Joannes) Immanuel (1510–1580), Hebrew and biblical scholar, was born in Ferrara, Italy, in 1510. His parents were Jews, and he had at least one brother. In Ferrara he received a traditional Jewish education as well as a humanist training in Latin and Greek, and, when he was twenty, proceeded to the ...

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Vermes, Geza (1924–2013), historian of ancient Judaism, was born on 22 June 1924 in Makó, in south-eastern Hungary, the only child of Ernõ Vermes (1877–1944), journalist, editor, and poet, and his second wife, Terézia, née Riesz (1895–1944), schoolteacher. Both his parents died in ...