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Florence Barbara Maria Baker, Lady Baker (1841–1916) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Baker [née von Sass], Florence Barbara Maria, Lady Baker (1841–1916), traveller in Africa, was born on 6 August 1841, probably in a German-speaking region of Hungary. She was the sole survivor of an attack on her home in which the rest of her family died during the disturbances of 1848. Nothing more is known of her antecedents or early life. She is next recorded in January 1859 in the Turkish town of ...

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Anne Isabella Noel Blunt, suo jure Baroness Wentworth (1837–1917) by unknown photographer [with Kassida] © Fitzwilliam Museum, University of Cambridge

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Blunt [née King], Anne Isabella Noel, suo jure Baroness Wentworth (1837–1917), traveller and breeder of Arab horses, was born on 22 September 1837 in London, the second of the three children, and the only daughter, of William King, first earl of Lovelace...

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Cecil Calvert, second Baron Baltimore (1605–1675) by Abraham Blooteling, 1657 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Calvert, Cecil, second Baron Baltimore (1605–1675), colonial promoter, was born on 8 August 1605, probably in Kent, and baptized on 2 March 1606, the son of George Calvert, first Baron Baltimore (1579/80–1632), statesman, and his first wife, Anne (1579–1622), the daughter of George Mynne...

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George Calvert, first Baron Baltimore (1579/8080–1632) by Daniel Mytens, 1627 © reserved

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Calvert, George, first Baron Baltimore (1579/80–1632), courtier and colonist in America, was born in Kiplin in Catterick parish, Yorkshire, the son of Leonard Calvert (b. c.1550) and Alica Crosland (d. early 1580s). He was descended from a Roman Catholic family that had been in ...

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Chatterton [née Iremonger; other married name Dering], Henrietta Georgiana Marcia Lascelles, Lady Chatterton (1806–1876), author and traveller, was the only child of the Revd Lascelles Iremonger (d. 6 Jan 1830), prebendary of Winchester, and his second wife, Harriet, youngest sister of ...

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Chisholm [née Jones], Caroline (1808–1877), immigration administrator, was born on 30 May 1808 at Wootton, Northampton, the youngest of twelve children of William Jones, a farmer, and his fourth wife, Sarah. Educated at home, she was brought up as an Anglican in a family tradition of practical service to the poor and the community. On 27 December 1830 she married Captain ...

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Connor [formerly O'Connor], Bernard (c. 1666–1698), physician and writer on Poland, the son of Bernard O'Connor, born in co. Kerry, Ireland, was descended from the O'Connor Kerry family, lords of Kerry. As a Roman Catholic, he was prohibited from attending school or university, and was therefore taught privately by tutors. Of his life in ...

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Lady Florence Caroline Dixie (1855–1905) by Andrew Maclure, pubd 1877 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Dixie [née Douglas], Lady Florence Caroline (1855–1905), author and traveller, was born in Kinmount, Cummertrees, Dumfriesshire, on 24 May 1855, one of a pair of twins, the youngest of the six children of Archibald William Douglas, eighth marquess of Queensberry (1818–1858), and his wife, ...

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Sir Robert Dudley (1574–1649) by Nicholas Hilliard, c. 1591–3 National Museum of Fine Arts, Sweden

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Dudley, Sir Robert (1574–1649), mariner and landowner, was born at Sheen House, Richmond, Surrey, on 7 August 1574, the son of Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester (1532/3–1588), and Douglas Sheffield (née Howard), Lady Sheffield (1542/3–1608). The status of his birth, which was to become the leading obsession of his life, is still debated, as are the circumstances of his early life, due in part to his own deliberate exaggerations and falsifications. Despite his mother's later claim that she refused to surrender him to ...

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Sir Thomas Gascoigne, eighth baronet (1745–1810) by Pompeo Girolamo Batoni, 1779 © Leeds Museums and Galleries (Lotherton Hall), U.K. / The Bridgeman Art Library

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Gascoigne, Sir Thomas, eighth baronet (1745–1810), traveller and politician, was born on 7 March 1745 at the English Benedictine convent at Cambrai, France. He was the sixth child and third son of Sir Edward Gascoigne, sixth baronet (1697–1750), of Parlington, west Yorkshire, and his wife, ...

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Gawen, Thomas (1612–1684), religious writer and traveller, son of Thomas Gawen, a Church of England minister of Bristol city, was born at Marshfield, Gloucestershire. He was admitted a scholar of Winchester College in 1625. In 1632 he was made perpetual fellow of New College, Oxford...

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Harriman [née Digby; other married names Churchill, Hayward], Pamela Beryl (1920–1997), adventurer and diplomatist, was born on 20 March 1920 at Farnborough, Kent, the eldest of three daughters and oldest of the four children of Edward Kenelm Digby, eleventh Baron Digby...

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Pamela Beryl Harriman (1920–1997) by Diana H. Walker, 1977 Getty Images – Diana H. Walker