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Badger, George Percy (1815–1888), Arabic scholar and missionary, was born on 6 April 1815 at Chelmsford, Essex, the son of Edward Badger, army sergeant, and his wife, Ann (d. 1844). He was brought up in Malta, where his father, a regimental schoolmaster, died during his childhood, leaving his education in a rudimentary state. His fluency in Maltese, however, laid the foundation of his later mastery of Arabic. From 1834 he worked successively for the Methodist, American protestant, and Anglican missions in ...

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Sir Herbert Butterfield (1900–1979) by Ruskin Spear, 1960 Master and Fellows of Peterhouse, Cambridge

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Butterfield, Sir Herbert (1900–1979), historian, was born at Oxenhope, Yorkshire, on 7 October 1900, the eldest of three children of Albert Butterfield, chief clerk at a Keighley woollen mill, and his wife, Ada Mary Buckland. He was educated at Keighley trade and grammar school...

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Sir John Harold Clapham (1873–1946) by Lafayette, 1926 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Clapham, Sir John Harold (1873–1946), economic historian, was born at Broughton, Salford, Lancashire, on 13 September 1873, the younger son of John Clapham, jeweller and silversmith, and his second wife, Mary Jane, daughter of John Chambers, accountant, of Manchester. There were two sons and a daughter....

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Edwards, Sir Ronald Stanley (1910–1976), economist, was born on 1 May 1910 in New Southgate, London, the second of three sons (the eldest having died in childhood) of Charles Edwards, a gas fitter, and his wife, Alice Osborne. He was educated at Garfield Road primary school, Southgate...

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Essame, Enid Mary [Emma] (1906–1999), headmistress, was born on 5 December 1906 at 10 Carlton Road, Sheffield, the second daughter of Oliver Essame (1874–1959), railway clerk, and his wife, Kate Chandler (1872–1955). Two younger brothers, Edgar and Gerald, completed the family. She grew up in a middle-class family with a love of literature and the arts and with the expectation that both the girls as well as the boys should receive a good education. The family moved to ...

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Fox, Levi (1914–2006), historian and conservationist, was born on 28 August 1914 at Woolrooms, Worthington, Leicestershire, the sixth of seven children of John William Fox, coalminer, and his wife, Julia Sophia, née Stinson. He was educated at Ashby-de-la-Zouch grammar school before proceeding in 1933, with scholarships, to ...

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Freeman, (Thomas) Walter (1908–1988), geographer, was born on 27 December 1908 in Congleton, Cheshire, the eldest of the three children of Thomas Ernest Freeman (1872–1957), a Methodist minister, and his wife, Mary Gibson (c.1875–1960). The family moved frequently, and lived variously in ...

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Gittins, Charles Edward (1908–1970), educational administrator, was born on 24 January 1908 at Rhostyllen, Esclusham, Wrexham, Denbighshire, the son of Charles Thomas Gittins, a colliery engine fitter, and his wife, Susannah Frances Rabbitt. He was educated initially at Bersham boys' council school and ...

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See Higdon [née Schollick], Annie Catharine [Kitty]

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Hopwood [née Skene], D. Caroline (d. in or before 1801), autobiographer and schoolmistress, was the youngest of three children of a Scottish army lieutenant named Skene and his wife, the daughter of Dr Law of Carlisle, 'a woman of good natural abilities … a liberal education and a religious turn of mind...

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Hughes, Elizabeth Phillips (1851–1925), college head and promoter of education in Wales, was born in Carmarthen on 22 June 1851, the eldest of three daughters and second of five children of John Hughes (1817–1897), a surgeon, and his wife, Anne (d. 1900)...

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Kilham [née Spurr], Hannah (1774–1832), missionary and student of African languages, born at Sheffield on 12 August 1774, was the seventh child of Peter and Hannah Spurr. Her father, a cutler by trade, was a strict Anglican, but her mother let her attend ...

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Long, James (1814–1887), missionary and Indian scholar, was born in Bandon, co. Cork, the eldest son of John Long, clerk and Methodist local preacher. While a pupil at Bandon grammar school he excelled in classics and developed an interest in languages. He also came under the influence of the evangelical revival of the time, and was converted at a Wesleyan Methodist meeting at the age of fourteen—an experience which determined the direction of his future career. After volunteering for service with the ...

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Malcolm, Norman Adrian (1911–1990), philosopher, was born on 11 June 1911 in Selden, Kansas, USA, the youngest of three sons of Charles Malcolm, farmer and pharmacist, and his wife, Adda, née Wingrove, schoolteacher. From the age of eight he attended school in Lincoln, Nebraska...

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Dame (Elizabeth) Leah Manning (1886–1977) by Bassano © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Manning [née Perrett], Dame (Elizabeth) Leah (1886–1977), educationist and politician, was born on 14 April 1886 at Burrish Street, Droitwich, the eldest of twelve children of Charles William Perrett and his wife, Harriet Margaret Tappin, both officers in the Salvation Army. Her mother had been a teacher and her father worked for a time in the family timber business. After her parents emigrated to ...

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Mayer, Matthew (1740–1814), Methodist preacher and promoter of the Sunday school movement, was born on 4 November 1740 at Portwood Hall estate, near Stockport, Cheshire, the son of John Mayer, yeoman farmer (d. 1775), and his wife, Hannah. Educated at a good country school, ...

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McClelland, Ivy Lilian (1908–2006), scholar of Spanish literature, was born on 18 May 1908 at 64 Sheil Road, West Derby, Liverpool, the only daughter and elder child of William Henry McClelland, insurance agent, and his wife, Selina, née Foxall. With her brother, Leslie (...