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John Anderson (1893–1962) by Sir William Dobell, 1962 © DACS 2010; University of Sydney Art Collection, John Anderson Testimonial Fund, 1962. Reproduced courtesy of Sir William Dobell Art Foundation

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Anderson, John (1893–1962), philosopher and social critic, was born in Stonehouse, Lanarkshire, 30 miles south-west of Glasgow, on 1 November 1893, the third of the five children of a radical schoolmaster, Alexander Anderson (1863–1947), and his wife, Elizabeth Brown (d. 1942), teacher, pianist, and poet....

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Aston, Trevor Henry (1925–1985), historian and editor, was born at 24 Gowan Avenue, Fulham, London, on 14 June 1925, the first child of Oliver John Aston (1899–1969), an ironmonger's assistant, and his wife, Florence May Woods (1900–1986). Soon after the birth of Trevor's...

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Austin, John Langshaw (1911–1960), philosopher, was born in Lancaster on 26 March 1911, the second son of the five children of Geoffrey Langshaw Austin (1884–1971), architect, and his wife, Mary Bowes-Wilson (1883–1948). After the First World War his parents moved to St Andrews...

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John Langshaw Austin (1911–1960) by Ramsey & Muspratt, 1951 photograph reproduced by courtesy of The British Academy

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Banks, Joseph Ambrose [Joe] (1920–2005), sociologist and historian, was born at 66 Montague Road, Edmonton, Middlesex, on 5 January 1920, the only child of Joseph William Banks, a boot and shoe dealer who later became a master tailor, and his wife, Louisa Mary Ann, ...

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Bateson, Gregory (1904–1980), anthropologist and communications theorist, was born on 9 May 1904 at Grantchester, Cambridgeshire, the youngest of three sons of William Bateson (1861–1926), zoologist and geneticist, and his wife, (Caroline) Beatrice (1870?–1941), daughter of Arthur Durham and his wife, Mary Ellis...

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Beales, Hugh Lancelot (1889–1988), economist and social historian, born at Sedbergh, Yorkshire, on 18 February 1889, was the son of William Beales, a Wesleyan Methodist minister, and his wife, Zaida Mary Ann Elizabeth Scantlebury Green. He grew up in a radical political household. He was sent to the ...

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Bell, Gertrude Margaret Lowthian (1868–1926), traveller, archaeologist, and diplomatist, was born at Washington Hall, co. Durham, on 14 July 1868, the elder child and only daughter of (Thomas) Hugh Bell (1844–1931), an ironmaster, who succeeded his father as second baronet in 1904, and his first wife, ...

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Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (1868–1926) by unknown photographer, c. 1900 Getty Images

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Bernal, Martin Gardiner (1937–2013), Sinologist and ancient historian, was born on 10 March 1937 at 35 Downshire Hill, Hampstead, London, the son of (John) Desmond Bernal (1901–1971), physicist, and Margaret Emilia Gardiner (1904–2005), arts patron. His mother, the daughter of the Egyptologist Sir Alan Gardiner...

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Blaug, Mark (1927–2011), economist and historian of economics, was born Norbert Blauaug on 3 April 1927 in The Hague, Netherlands, the second son of Berl Blauaug (later Bernard Blaug), raincoat manufacturer, and his wife, Sarah, née Toeman. His father had Austro-Hungarian nationality and his mother was English. They were a Jewish family but ...

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Mark Blaug (1927–2011) by unknown photographer, 1970s photograph reproduced by courtesy of The British Academy

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Bredsdorff, Elias Lunn (1912–2002), Danish scholar, was born on 15 January 1912 at Roskilde folk high school, Denmark, the youngest of six sons of Thomas Vilhelm Birkedal Bredsdorff (1868–1922) and his wife, Margrethe, née Lunn (1871–1958). His father was the headmaster of the school, a further education college run on liberal Christian principles, and his mother a teacher. Originally taught at home, from the age of twelve he attended ...

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Elias Lunn Bredsdorff (1912–2002) by Bertyl Gaye, c. 1962–1963 The Master and Fellows of Peterhouse, Cambridge

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Britton, James Nimmo (1908–1994), educationist, was born on 5 May 1908 in Scarborough, Yorkshire, the second of the four children of James Nimmo Britton (1873–1945), Baptist minister, and his wife, Elsie Clare (1884–1956), daughter of the Revd William Slater, Baptist minister in Lincoln...

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Brown, Alfred Reginald Radcliffe- (1881–1955), social anthropologist, was born Alfred Reginald Brown on 17 January 1881 at 39 Farm Road, Aston, Warwickshire, the second son and last of three children of Alfred Brown (1834–1886), manufacturer's clerk, and his second wife, Hannah (c...

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Brunt, Peter Astbury (1917–2005), ancient historian, was born on 23 June 1917, at 16 Highfield Road, Coulsdon, Surrey, the only child of Samuel Brunt, Wesleyan Methodist minister, and his wife, Gladys Eileen, née Blewett. He was educated at Ipswich School, and won an open scholarship in history to ...

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Bull, Hedley Norman (1932–1985), scholar of international relations, was born on 10 June 1932 in Englewood Hospital, Burwood, Sydney, New South Wales, the third and youngest child of (Joseph) Norman Bull (1891–1972), insurance broker, and his wife, Doris Annie, née Hordern (1893–1967), whose family had developed a chain of department stores in ...

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Bury, John Bagnell (1861–1927), classical scholar and historian, was born in co. Monaghan, Ireland, on 16 October 1861. His father, the Revd Edward John Bury, curate of Monaghan, subsequently rector of Clontibert and canon of Clogher, had married Anna Rogers of Monaghan, '...