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Alexander, Sir Kenneth John Wilson [Ken] (1922–2001), economist, university administrator, and public servant, was born on 14 March 1922 at 12 Kilmaurs Terrace, Edinburgh, the only son of William Wilson Alexander (1888–1930), lawyer, and his wife, Mary Logan Grahame, née Wilson (1888–1975), tailoress. He won a scholarship to ...

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William Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Sanderstead (1915–1980) by Arnold Newman, 1978 Arnold Newman / Getty Images; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Armstrong, William, Baron Armstrong of Sanderstead (1915–1980), civil servant and banker, was born in the Salvation Mothers' Home, Mare Street, Clapton, London, on 3 March 1915, the elder son of William Armstrong, of Stirling, and his wife, Priscilla Hopkins. Both his parents were ...

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Antonin Besse (1877–1951) by unknown photographer courtesy of St Antony's College, Oxford

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Besse, Antonin (1877–1951), entrepreneur and benefactor, was born on 26 June 1877 at Carcassonne in southern France, the third son and fourth child in the family of four boys and three girls of Pierre Besse, leather merchant, and his wife, Marie Bonnafous. In failing health ...

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Edward Clodd (1840–1930) by Emil Otto Hoppé, c. 1909 by permission of the E. O. Hoppé Trust, Curatorial Assistance, Inc., Los Angeles; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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E. S. P. Haynes

revised by J. F. M. Clark

Clodd, Edward (1840–1930), banker and popular anthropologist, was born at Queen Street, Margate, Kent, on 1 July 1840, the eldest child of Edward Clodd and his wife, Susan Parker. Of his six brothers and sisters four died in infancy and two did not survive childhood. His father was a ...

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Hubert Kinsman Cudlipp, Baron Cudlipp (1913–1998) by Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1961 © Henri Cartier-Bresson / Magnum Photos; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Cudlipp, Hubert Kinsman [Hugh], Baron Cudlipp (1913–1998), journalist and publishing executive, was born at 118 Lisvane Street, Cardiff, on 28 August 1913, the youngest son in the family of three sons and one daughter of William Christopher Cudlipp, commercial traveller for a provision merchant, and his wife, ...

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Currie, Bertram Wodehouse (1827–1896), banker, was born on 25 November 1827, at Harley Street, Marylebone, Middlesex, the second son of Raikes Currie (1801–1881), banker and MP for Northampton (1835–57), and his wife, the Hon. Laura Sophia (d. 1869), daughter of the second Baron Wodehouse...

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Durant, Henry William (1902–1982), opinion pollster and market researcher, was born at 42 Drummond Road, Bermondsey, London, on 23 October 1902, the first son and second of the five children of Henry William Durant (1870–1913), general warehouseman and later a foreman in a grain mill, and his wife, ...

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Engels, Friedrich [Frederick] (1820–1895), businessman and revolutionary leader, was born on 28 November 1820 in Barmen, Westphalia, the son of Friedrich Engels (1796–1860), a textile manufacturer, and Elizabeth, née van Haar (1797–1873), the daughter of a schoolmaster of Dutch origin. Frederick (as he came to be known in ...

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Friedrich Engels (1820–1895) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Fawcett, Henry (1833–1884), economist and politician, was born on 26 August 1833 in Salisbury, Wiltshire, the third of four children of William Fawcett (1793–1887), a draper, and his wife, Mary Cooper (d. 1889), the daughter of a local solicitor. Henry's brothers, William...

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Fisk, Sir Ernest Thomas (1886–1965), entrepreneur and developer of radio, was born on 8 August 1886 at Sunbury, Middlesex, the second child of Thomas Harvey Fisk, builder, and his wife, Charlotte Hariette, née Halland. Educated at St Mary's and Sunbury Boys' schools, Fisk...

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John Kells Ingram (1823–1907) by Sarah Purser, 1890 © Estate of Sarah Henrietta Purser. Photograph reproduced with the kind permission of the Trustees of the National Museums & Galleries of Northern Ireland

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[Anon.]

revised by R. D. Collison Black

Ingram, John Kells (1823–1907), scholar and economist, born at the rectory of Temple Carne, near Pettigo, Donegal, on 7 July 1823, was the eldest son of William Ingram (1771–1829), then curate of the parish, and his wife, Elizabeth Cooke. Thomas Dunbar Ingram was his younger brother. The family was descended from Scottish Presbyterians who settled in ...

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James Maitland, eighth earl of Lauderdale (1759–1839) by Thomas Phillips, 1806 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Maitland, James, eighth earl of Lauderdale (1759–1839), politician and political economist, was born on 26 January 1759 at Hatton House, Ratho, Edinburghshire. He was the eldest surviving son of the six sons and six daughters of James Maitland, seventh earl of Lauderdale (1718–1789)...

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Maker: Sir William Rothenstein

Alfred Marshall (1842–1924) by Sir William Rothenstein, 1908 by courtesy of the Estate of Sir William Rothenstein; collection St John's College, Cambridge