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William Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Sanderstead (1915–1980) by Arnold Newman, 1978 Arnold Newman / Getty Images; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Armstrong, William, Baron Armstrong of Sanderstead (1915–1980), civil servant and banker, was born in the Salvation Mothers' Home, Mare Street, Clapton, London, on 3 March 1915, the elder son of William Armstrong, of Stirling, and his wife, Priscilla Hopkins. Both his parents were ...

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Aveling, Edward Bibbens (1849–1898), Marxist campaigner, was born on 29 November 1849 at 6 Nelson Terrace, Stoke Newington, the fifth of eight children of Thomas William Baxter Aveling (1815–1884), Congregationalist minister, and his wife, Mary Ann (d. 1877), daughter of Thomas Goodall...

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Barrett, Rosa Mary (1855–1936), social reformer and feminist, was born in Jamaica, the youngest of the four surviving children of William Garland Barrett (1812–1865), Congregational minister and sometime missionary to Jamaica, and his wife, Martha, née Fletcher (1811?–1893). One brother was the leading Congregationalist ...

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Bulley, Arthur Kilpin (1861–1942), cotton broker and gardener, was born at Montpellier Lodge, Montpellier Crescent, New Brighton, Cheshire, on 10 January 1861, the fourth son and thirteenth of fourteen children of Samuel Marshall Bulley (1811–1880), cotton broker, and his wife, Mary Rachel (1817–1887)...

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Callaway, Charles (1838–1915), geologist, was born at 2 Stratton Street, Bristol, on 9 March 1838, the son of Lemuel Callaway, accountant, and his wife, Jane Williams. After schooling in Bristol and Cheltenham, he enrolled in 1859 at Cheshunt College, intending to becoming a Congregationalist minister, and during his studies he received support from the ...

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Edward Clodd (1840–1930) by Emil Otto Hoppé, c. 1909 by permission of the E. O. Hoppé Trust, Curatorial Assistance, Inc., Los Angeles; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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E. S. P. Haynes

revised by J. F. M. Clark

Clodd, Edward (1840–1930), banker and popular anthropologist, was born at Queen Street, Margate, Kent, on 1 July 1840, the eldest child of Edward Clodd and his wife, Susan Parker. Of his six brothers and sisters four died in infancy and two did not survive childhood. His father was a ...

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Alexander Comfort (1920–2000) by Dellenback, 1961 © News International Newspapers Ltd

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Comfort, Alexander [Alex] (1920–2000), physician and writer, was born on 10 February 1920 at 21 Palmerston Crescent, Edmonton, Middlesex, the only son of Alexander Charles Comfort (1882/3–1975), an education officer for the London county council, and his wife, Daisy Elizabeth, née Fenner (...

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Davies, David Richard (1889–1958), writer, political agitator, and minister of religion, was born at Pontycymer, Glamorgan, on 19 February 1889, the son of Richard Davies and his wife, Hannah. He was the youngest of four children. His father had been a miner, but had broken his back in a colliery accident before ...

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Davies, (William Thomas) Pennar (1911–1996), poet, novelist, and Welsh nationalist, was born in Mountain Ash, Glamorgan, on 12 November 1911, the eldest of four children and only son of Joseph Davies, a coalminer, and Edith Anne (née Moss), his wife. Despite the family's disadvantaged circumstances, ...

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Dawkins, (Charles John) Massey (1905–1975), anaesthetist, was born on 13 July 1905 at 4 Tanza Road, London, the only child of Charles William Dawkins (1870–1948), European manager of Massey Harris Co. Ltd, and his wife, Eleanor Selina Cranfield. Dawkins, who was known as ...

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Katharine St John Bruce Glasier (1867–1950) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Glasier, Katharine St John Bruce [née Katharine St John Conway] (1867–1950), socialist and politician, was born on 25 September 1867 in Stoke Newington, London. She was the second of seven children of Samuel Conway, a Congregationalist minister based at Ongar, Essex, and his wife, ...

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Thomas Hamilton

revised by I. T. Foster

Hall, John Vine (1774–1860), religious writer, was born on 14 March 1774 at Diss. His father had been a man of property, but had lost it. At eleven ‘little Jack’ was apprenticed to a schoolmaster who, he recounted, 'taught me to write the law-hands, and, by way of making the most of me, hired me to the then clerk of the peace...

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J. E. Roseblade

revised

Hall, Philip (1904–1982), mathematician, was born on 11 April 1904 in Hampstead, the natural son of George Hall and Mary Laura Sayers, dressmaker, of Hampstead, daughter of Joseph Sayers, gardener, of Balcombe. George Hall disappeared from his life soon afterwards and Philip was brought up by his mother. He was educated at ...

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Hallas, Eldred (1870–1926), trade unionist and politician, was born in Stainland in the West Riding of Yorkshire, on 23 February 1870, the eldest son of Edward Hallas (1847–1920), wool sorter and later wool buyer, and his first wife, Sarah, née Barrett (1849–1875). He had an elder sister. Their elementary education cut short, ...

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Howard, Peter Dunsmore (1908–1965), journalist and leader of Moral Re-Armament, was born at 8 Laburnham Road, Maidenhead, Berkshire, on 20 December 1908, when his forenames were registered as Hereward Peter. He was the elder of two sons of Ebenezer Cecil Howard (1881–1960), a preparatory school teacher who was also a non-practising barrister, and his wife, ...

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Howes, Frank Stewart (1891–1974), music critic and author, was born on 2 April 1891 at 13 Cobden Crescent, Oxford, the elder child and only son of George Howes (1866–1949), a grocer and amateur singer of Oxford, and his wife, Grace Selina Phipps (1866–1949)...