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Carré, Jean [John Carre] (d. 1572), entrepreneur and glass manufacturer, was born in Arras, Artois, the son of Antoine Carré and Dunigell Michell Prevost, probably before 1520. It is likely that he passed at least part of his early working life in the town since his daughter ...

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Clavière, Étienne (1735–1793), political writer and financier, was born in Geneva on 29 January 1735, the son of Jean-Jacques Clavière (1704–1776), a linen merchant originally from the Dauphiné, in south-east France, and Jeanne-Elisabeth Rapillard, from Lausanne. As a young man Clavière was apprenticed to a Bavarian merchant firm and then to a trading and banking business part-owned by his family. In 1758 he married his cousin ...

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Courten, Sir William (c. 1568–1636), merchant and financier, was born in London, the son of William Courten, a merchant, and his wife, Margaret Casiere. His parents were religious refugees who fled from Leye in Flanders during 1568. His father set up a textile business in ...

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Engels, Friedrich [Frederick] (1820–1895), businessman and revolutionary leader, was born on 28 November 1820 in Barmen, Westphalia, the son of Friedrich Engels (1796–1860), a textile manufacturer, and Elizabeth, née van Haar (1797–1873), the daughter of a schoolmaster of Dutch origin. Frederick (as he came to be known in ...

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Hoste, Dirick (c. 1588–1663), merchant and financier, was born in Middelburg, Netherlands, the son of Jacques Hoste (b. 1545), a merchant, and his wife, Barbara Henricksen. His father and grandfather had fled Oudenarde in Flanders for religious reasons in the wake of the ‘Wonderyear’ of 1566—the failed protestant insurrection in the ...

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Malynes [Malines, de Malines], Gerard [Garrett, Gerald] (fl. 1585–1641), merchant and writer on economics, was the son of a 'mint-master' (Malynes, 281). He claimed that Lancashire was the 'countrey' of his 'ancestors and parents', but he was actually born in ...

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Neck, Sir Joshua van, first baronet (1702–1777), merchant and financier, was born in The Hague on 5 January 1702, one of the six sons of Cornelis van Neck, paymaster-general of the land forces of the United Provinces, and his wife, Anna de Greeff...

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Vanlore, Sir Peter [formerly Pieter van Loor] (c. 1547–1627), merchant and moneylender, was born in Utrecht in the Netherlands, the third son of Maurice van Loor and his wife, Stephania. He arrived in England about 1568. By 1571 he was lodging with one ...