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Ablett, Noah (1883–1935), miners' leader and adult educator, was born on 4 October 1883 in Ynys-hir, near Porth, Rhondda, Glamorgan, the tenth of eleven children of John Ablett, miner, and his wife, Jane, née Williams. Educated at Ferndale higher grade school, he was a boy preacher. He followed his father and elder brothers and started work in the ...

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Abney, Sir Thomas (1639/40–1722), merchant and mayor of London, was born at Willesley, Derbyshire, the youngest of four sons of James Abney, landowner, and Jane Mainwaring (d. after 1640). The Abney family had owned land at Willesley for several centuries, and James Abney...

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Alsop, Benjamin (b. c. 1658, d. in or before 1703), bookseller, was the only son of Vincent Alsop (bap. 1630, d. 1703), presbyterian minister, and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Benjamin King of Oakham, Rutland. His father, who was married on 1 May 1657, lived and preached at ...

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Ames, Jeremiah (1706–1776), banker and merchant, was born on 20 July 1706 at Evercreech, near Shepton Mallet, Somerset, one of eight children of Levi Ames (d. 1726), grocer, and his first wife, Hannah (d. 1711), daughter of John Watts of Doulting, Somerset...

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Sir Richard Arkwright (1732–1792) by Joseph Wright of Derby, 1789–90 private collection; photograph © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Arkwright, Sir Richard (1732–1792), inventor of cotton-spinning machinery and cotton manufacturer, was born on 23 December 1732 at Preston, Lancashire, the sixth of the seven children of Thomas Arkwright (1691–1753), a tailor, and his wife, Ellen Hodgkinson (1693–1778). The family was rooted in ...

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Slingsby Bethel (bap. 1617, d. 1697) by William Sherwin, 1680 © Copyright The British Museum

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Bethel, Slingsby (bap. 1617, d. 1697), merchant and political economist, was baptized in Alne, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, on 27 February 1617, a younger son of Sir Walter Bethel (d. 1622), gentleman, and Mary Slingsby (1582–1662), daughter of Sir Henry Slingsby...

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Andrew Carnegie (1835–1919) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

Carnegie, Andrew (1835–1919), steelmaker and philanthropist, was born in Moodie Street, Dunfermline, Fife, on 25 November 1835, the eldest of three children of William Carnegie (d. 1855), a damask linen weaver, and his wife, Margaret. After the age of eight he was educated at a Lancastrian school. Other influences on him—aside from his parents' poverty—were his family's nonconformity (his father was a Swedenborgian) and its Chartist sympathies....

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Chapman, Livewell (bap. 1625, d. in or after 1665), bookseller and Fifth Monarchist, was baptised on 1 December 1625 at St Mary le Bow, London, the son of Edward Chapman, a London scrivener. His father had died by the time he was apprenticed in the ...

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Coade, Eleanor (1733–1821), manufacturer of artificial stone, was born on 3 June 1733 in Exeter, the elder daughter (there were no sons) of George Coade, wool merchant, of Exeter, and his wife, Eleanor, daughter of Thomas Enchmarch, wool merchant, of Tiverton, Devon. She was brought up as a nonconformist. The family remained in ...

Article

G. C. Boase

revised by Rebecca Mills

Conder, Josiah (1789–1855), bookseller and writer, was born in Falcon Street, Aldersgate, London, on 17 September 1789, the son of Thomas Conder (1746/7–1831), a map engraver and bookseller, and his wife, Elisabeth. His grandfather Dr John Conder was president of Old College, Homerton...

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Brian G. Awty

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Crittall, Francis Henry (1860–1935), metal window manufacturer, was born on 27 July 1860 at 27 Bank Street, Braintree, Essex, the eighth of the eleven children of Francis Berrington Crittall (d. 1879), an ironmonger, and Fanny Morris, née Godfrey (d. 1879). His parents, from ...

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Samuel Dale (bap. 1659, d. 1739) by George Vertue, 1737 © National Portrait Gallery, London

Article

G. S. Boulger

revised by Juanita Burnby

Dale, Samuel (bap. 1659, d. 1739), apothecary and physician, son of North Dale (bap. 1618), silk-thrower, and his wife, Christian, was baptized on 15 August 1659 at St Olave's, Hart Street, London. Dale was apprenticed for eight years to Thomas Wells, a ...