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Barrington [née Lytton], Judith, Lady Barrington (d. 1657), gentlewoman, was the daughter of the MP Sir Rowland Lytton (d. 1615) of Knebworth, Hertfordshire. Her family had puritan sympathies and was one in which daughters were encouraged to read. In 1612 she married ...

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Cheke, Sir John (1514–1557), humanist, royal tutor, and administrator, was born on 16 June 1514 in a house on the corner of Market Hill and Petty Cury in Cambridge, the son of Peter Cheke (d. 1530), administrator, of Cambridge, and his wife, ...

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Sir John Cheke (1514–1557) attrib. Lodovico Leoni, c. 1555 © Copyright The British Museum

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Copley, Thomas (1532–1584), landowner and Roman Catholic exile, was born between February and May 1532, eldest son of Sir Roger Copley (d. 1549), landowner and member of the Mercers' Company, and his second wife, Elizabeth (d. 1559/60), daughter of Sir William Shelley...

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Sir Henry Neville c. 1520–1593 by unknown artist, 1592 © reserved

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Henry VIII, privy chamber of (act. 1509–1547), body of personal servants to the king, was an institution whose importance has only recently been fully appreciated. Developments at the royal court from the mid-fifteenth century put in place new living arrangements for the king—a private suite known (from its most important room) as ‘the privy chamber’. In turn this led by the end of the first decade of the reign of ...

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Manners, Henry, second earl of Rutland (1526–1563), courtier and soldier, was born on 23 September 1526 and baptized after 24 December at Elsinges Manor, Enfield, Middlesex, the eldest son of five sons and six daughters of Thomas Manners, first earl of Rutland (c. 1497–1543)...