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Henry Addington, first Viscount Sidmouth (1757–1844) by Sir William Beechey, in or before 1803 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Addington, Henry, first Viscount Sidmouth (1757–1844), prime minister, was born on 30 May 1757, the fourth child and eldest son of Anthony Addington (1713–1790), physician, and his wife, Mary (d. 1778), daughter and heir of the Revd Haviland John Hiley, headmaster of ...

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Asquith, Herbert Henry, first earl of Oxford and Asquith (1852–1928), prime minister, was born on 12 September 1852 at Croft House, Morley, Yorkshire. He was registered at birth as Herbert Asquith, and was known by that name until he was about forty, being called ...

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Clement Richard Attlee, first Earl Attlee (1883–1967) by Sir James Gunn, 1950 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Attlee, Clement Richard, first Earl Attlee (1883–1967), prime minister, was born on 3 January 1883 at Westcott, 18 Portinscale Road, Putney, London, the seventh of the eight children of Henry Attlee (1841–1908), solicitor, and his wife, Ellen (1847–1920), daughter of Thomas Watson of ...

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Baldwin, Stanley, first Earl Baldwin of Bewdley (1867–1947), prime minister, was born at Lower Park House, Bewdley, Worcestershire, on 3 August 1867, the only child of Alfred Baldwin (1841–1908) and his wife, Louisa Macdonald (1845–1925) [[see Baldwin, Louisa], under [Macdonald sisters...

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Stanley Baldwin, first Earl Baldwin of Bewdley (1867–1947) by Vandyk, 1927 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Balfour, Arthur James, first earl of Balfour (1848–1930), prime minister and philosopher, was born on 25 July 1848 at Whittingehame House, East Lothian, the third of eight children and eldest son of James Maitland Balfour (1820–1856), landowner (and MP, 1841–7), and his wife, ...

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Arthur James Balfour, first earl of Balfour (1848–1930) by John Singer Sargent, 1908 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bannerman, Sir Henry Campbell- (1836–1908), prime minister, was born at Kelvinside, Glasgow, on 7 September 1836, the second son and the youngest of the six children of Sir James Campbell (1790–1876) and his wife, Janet, née Bannerman (d. 1873). His extra surname was acquired as a condition of inheriting his maternal uncle's estate in 1871. He did not like his 'horrid long name', preferring '...

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Bentinck, William Henry Cavendish Cavendish-, third duke of Portland (1738–1809), prime minister, was born on 14 April 1738, the eldest son of William Bentinck, second duke of Portland (1709–1762), courtier and landowner, and his wife, Lady Margaret Cavendish Harley (1715–1785), the only daughter and heir of the ...

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William Henry Cavendish Cavendish- Bentinck, third duke of Portland (1738–1809) by Sir Thomas Lawrence, completed 1792 Bristol Museums and Art Gallery

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Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff (1912–2005) by Bryan Organ, 1983 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Callaghan, Leonard James [Jim], Baron Callaghan of Cardiff (1912–2005), prime minister, was born at 38 Funtington Road, Copnor, Portsmouth, on 27 March 1912, the only son and younger child of James Callaghan, formerly Garoghan (1877–1921), a sailor who rose to the rank of chief petty officer in the ...

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George Canning (1770–1827) by Sir Thomas Lawrence, 1825 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Canning, George (1770–1827), prime minister and parodist, was born in Marylebone, Middlesex, on 11 April 1770, the son of George Canning (1736–1771) and his wife, Mary Ann Costello (1747?–1827). His parents were both Irish; he described himself as 'an Irishman born in London...

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Cavendish, William, fourth duke of Devonshire (bap. 1720, d. 1764), prime minister, was baptized at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster, on 1 June 1720, the eldest of the four sons of William Cavendish, third duke of Devonshire (1698–1755), politician and landowner, and his wife, Catherine (...

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Cecil, Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-, third marquess of Salisbury (1830–1903), prime minister, was born at Hatfield House, Hertfordshire, on 3 February 1830, the fifth of six children and third of four sons of James Brownlow William Cecil, second marquess of Salisbury (1791–1868), and his first wife, ...

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Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne- Cecil, third marquess of Salisbury (1830–1903) by Sir John Everett Millais, 1882 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Chamberlain, (Arthur) Neville (1869–1940), prime minister, was born on 18 March 1869 at Edgbaston, Birmingham, the only son of Joseph Chamberlain (1836–1914) and his second wife, Florence (1847–1875), the daughter of Timothy Kenrick of Birmingham. His childhood was by all accounts very happy, although the household in which he grew to maturity was affected by profound sadness. His father's first wife, ...