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Abraham, Roy Clive (1890–1963), scholar of African languages and colonial administrator, was born on 16 December 1890 in Melbourne, Australia, the second son of Isaac Abraham (1849-1918) and his wife Amy nee Soloman (b. 1861). From a Jewish background, he studied at ...

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Abramsky, Yehezkel (1886–1976), rabbinic scholar and Orthodox Jewish leader, was born on or about 7 February 1886 in Dashkovtsy, near Most and Grodno, Lithuania, the third child and eldest son of Mordecai Zalman Abramsky, a local timber merchant, and his wife, Freydel Goldin...

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Sir Zelman Cowen (1919–2011) by Wes Walters, 2000 © National Portrait Gallery, Canberra, Gift of Marc Besen AO and Dr Joseph Brown AO OBE 2000

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Cowen, Sir Zelman (1919–2011), legal scholar, governor-general of Australia, and college head, was born Zelman Cohen on 7 October 1919 in St Kilda, Melbourne, the only son of Bernard Cohen, later Cowen (1892–1975), businessman, and his wife Sara, née Granat (1893–1989). In March 1922 his father changed his surname by deed poll. Both families were part of the mass exodus of Jews from tsarist ...

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Drucker, Henry Matthew (1942–2002), political scientist and fund-raiser, was born on 29 April 1942 in Paterson, New Jersey, USA, the elder son of Arthur Drucker (1912–1980) and his wife, Frances (1915–2001), New Deal Democrat parents. He was at school in Rutherford where his father was the proprietor of a local department store. At ...

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Franklin [née Montagu], Henrietta [Netta] (1866–1964), educationist and suffragist, was born on 9 April 1866 in London, the first of the eleven surviving children of Samuel Montagu, later first Baron Swaythling (1832–1911), foreign-exchange banker and Jewish philanthropist, and his wife, Ellen Cohen (1848–1919)...

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Tony Robert Judt (1948–2010) by John R. Rifkin, 2004 © John R. Rifkin

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Judt, Tony Robert (1948–2010), historian and political commentator, was born on 2 January 1948 at 153 Lower Clapton Road, Hackney, London, the elder child of Isaac Joseph Judt, whose various occupations included hairdresser and sundriesman, and his wife, Stella Sophie, née Dudakoff. He had one sister, ...

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Elie Kedourie (1926–1992) by unknown photographer © reserved; private collection

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Kedourie, Elie [formerly Eliahou Abdallah Khedhouri] (1926–1992), historian and political scientist, was born in Baghdad on 25 January 1926, the son of Abdallah Eliahou Khedhouri (d. 1964), an employee of the Iraq currency board, and his wife, Loulou Moshi, née Dangour (...

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Kogan, Maurice (1930–2007), civil servant and scholar of education and public policy, was born Maurice Cohen on 10 April 1930 at 48 Stephens Road, West Ham, London. He and his identical twin, Philip, were the youngest of five boys and one girl of ...

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Sir Philip Magnus, first baronet (1842–1933) by Lafayette, 1927 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Magnus, Sir Philip, first baronet (1842–1933), educationist and politician, was born on 7 October 1842 at 160 High Holborn, London, the second of the five children of Jacob Magnus (1805–1888), a tailor and later a wine merchant, and his wife, Caroline Barnett (1808/9–1894)...

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Marx, Karl Heinrich (1818–1883), revolutionary and thinker, known from student days to his intimates as Mohr (the Moor), was born on 5 May 1818 at Brückengasse 664, in Trier, a recent addition to the kingdom of Prussia, the third of nine children and only surviving son of the lawyer ...

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Karl Heinrich Marx (1818–1883) by unknown photographer, 1867 Marx Memorial Library, London

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Redlich, Josef (1869–1936), scholar and politician, was born on 18 June 1869 at Göding (Hodonin), Moravia, the second of five children and younger son of Adolf Redlich (1839–1896), sugar manufacturer, and his wife, Rosa Fanto (d. 1908). Coming from a German-Jewish family background in a rural Slav area, he was sent to ...

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Stein, Leonard Jacques (1887–1973), scholar and Zionist, was born in London on 12 December 1887, the only son (he had one sister) of Philip David Stein, a merchant, and his wife, Matilda Esther, daughter of Louis Beaver, jeweller in Manchester. His parents were of German-Jewish origin; the family had come to ...

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Alice Louisa Theodora Zimmern (1855–1939) by Kenneth Green, 1930s The Mistress and Fellows, Girton College, Cambridge

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Zimmern, Alice Louisa Theodora (1855–1939), educationist and suffragist, was born on 22 September 1855 at Postern Street, Nottingham, the youngest of three daughters of Hermann Theodor Zimmern, a German Jewish immigrant with scholarly interests who was in business as a lace merchant, and his wife, ...