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Addis, Sir Charles Stewart (1861–1945), banker and government adviser, was born on 23 November 1861 in Edinburgh, the youngest of twelve children of the Revd Thomas Addis (1813–1899), a Free Church of Scotland minister, and his wife, Robina, daughter of a tea merchant in ...

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Alexander, Sir Kenneth John Wilson [Ken] (1922–2001), economist, university administrator, and public servant, was born on 14 March 1922 at 12 Kilmaurs Terrace, Edinburgh, the only son of William Wilson Alexander (1888–1930), lawyer, and his wife, Mary Logan Grahame, née Wilson (1888–1975), tailoress. He won a scholarship to ...

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James Anderson (1739–1808) by Samuel Freeman, pubd 1809 (after J. Anderson) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Anderson, James (1739–1808), agriculturist and political economist, born at Hermiston, near Edinburgh, inherited the tenancy of a large farm there at the age of fifteen when his parents (whose names are unknown) died. He had already prepared himself for the position by attending ...

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Sir Thomas Andrewes (d. 1659) by unknown artist private collection

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Andrewes, Sir Thomas (d. 1659), financier and regicide, was the son of Robert Andrewes of Feltham, Middlesex, a Plymouth adventurer and subscriber to the Massachusetts Bay Company, and his wife, Margaret. He was a member of the Leathersellers' Company (and its master in 1638–9), and from 1631 ran a wholesale linen drapery business at the ...

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Armstrong, William, Baron Armstrong of Sanderstead (1915–1980), civil servant and banker, was born in the Salvation Mothers' Home, Mare Street, Clapton, London, on 3 March 1915, the elder son of William Armstrong, of Stirling, and his wife, Priscilla Hopkins. Both his parents were ...

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William Armstrong, Baron Armstrong of Sanderstead (1915–1980) by Arnold Newman, 1978 Arnold Newman / Getty Images; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Assheton, Ralph, first Baron Clitheroe (1901–1984), politician and businessman, was born at Downham Hall, Clitheroe, on 24 February 1901, the second of four children and only son of Sir Ralph Cockayne Assheton, first baronet (1860–1955), of Downham Hall, and his wife, Mildred Estelle Sybella (...

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Bagehot, Walter (1826–1877), political commentator, economist, and journalist, was born on 3 February 1826 at Langport, Somerset, the second son of Thomas Watson Bagehot (1795–1881), banker, and Edith Stuckey (1786–1870), a niece of Samuel Stuckey, founder in 1772 of Stuckey's Bank, which issued its own banknotes and enjoyed considerable prominence and respect in the west country. The first born, ...

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Walter Bagehot (1826–1877) by Norman Hirst, pubd 1891 (after Adolphe Beau, 1864) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bailey, Sir Abraham [Abe], first baronet (1864–1940), financier and politician in South Africa, was born at Cradock, Cape Colony, on 6 November 1864, the only son of Thomas Bailey (d. 1905) of Keighley, Yorkshire, a shopkeeper of Queenstown, which he represented in the ...

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Balfour, Jabez Spencer (1843–1916), company promoter and politician, was born in Marylebone, Middlesex, on 4 September 1843, the younger son of James Balfour (1796–1884) and Clara Lucas Balfour (1808–1878), who were prominent workers in the mid-Victorian temperance movement. Balfour's career is best understood in the context of the increasingly prominent part played by militant middle-class nonconformists in the business world, in the ...

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Sir David Miller Barbour (1841–1928) by Walter Stoneman, 1917 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Barbour, Sir David Miller (1841–1928), administrator in India and writer on monetary issues, was born at Omagh, co. Tyrone, Ireland, on 29 December 1841, the fifth child of Miller Barbour and his wife, Margaret Denny, into an established family of farmers and small landowners at ...

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Baring, (George) Rowland Stanley, third earl of Cromer (1918–1991), banker and diplomatist, was born on 28 July 1918, the only son and youngest of three children of Rowland Thomas Baring, second earl of Cromer (1877–1953), courtier, and his wife, Lady Ruby Florence Mary (1886–1961)...

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Thomas Baring (1799–1873) attrib. George Richmond, 1826 ING Bank, NV (London Branch). Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Baring, Thomas (1799–1873), banker and politician, was born on 7 September 1799 at Lee, near Lewisham, Kent, the second of the four sons and five daughters of Sir Thomas Baring (1772–1848), landowner, and his wife, Mary Ursula Sealy, daughter of Charles Sealy, a barrister at ...

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Bartley, Sir George Christopher Trout (1842–1910), banker and politician, was born at Rectory Place, Hackney, on 22 November 1842, the son of Robert Bartley, of the War Office and his second wife, Julia Anna, née Lucas. After early education at Blackheath, at Clapton...

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Barton, John (1789–1852), political economist and botanist, was born on 11 June 1789 in Southwark, London, the son of John Barton (1755–1789) and his second wife, Elizabeth, née Horne (1760–1833). He was the half-brother of Maria Hack, children's writer, and Bernard Barton, poet. The elder ...