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Maker: David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson

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George Combe (1788–1858) by David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson, 1843 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Combe [Comb], George (1788–1858), phrenologist, was born in Livingstone Yards, Edinburgh, on 21 October 1788, one of the seventeen children of George Comb (d. 1815), a brewer, and Marion Newton (d. 1819), who came from a family of tenant farmers. Combe...

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Robert Edmond Grant (1793–1874) by Thomas Herbert Maguire, 1852 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Grant, Robert Edmond (1793–1874), comparative anatomist and transmutationist, was born in Edinburgh on 11 November 1793. He was the seventh son in the family of twelve sons and two daughters of Alexander Grant (d. 1808), a wealthy writer to the signet, and ...

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William Hunter (1718–1783) by Allan Ramsay, c. 1764 © Hunterian Art Gallery, University of Glasgow

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Hunter, William (1718–1783), physician, anatomist, and man-midwife, was born on 23 May 1718 at Long Calderwood, East Kilbride, Lanarkshire, the seventh of ten children of John Hunter (d. 1741), farmer, and Agnes (d. 1751), a woman of wide education, daughter of ...

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Maker: David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson

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Robert Knox (1791–1862) by David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Knox, Robert (1791–1862), anatomist and ethnologist, descended from a family of Kirkcudbright tenant farmers who claimed kinship with the ancient family of Ranfurly in Renfrewshire, which included the reformer John Knox, was the eighth child and fifth son of Robert Knox (d...

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Smith, Sir Grafton Elliot (1871–1937), anatomist and anthropologist, was born on 15 August 1871 in Grafton, New South Wales, second son of Stephen Sheldrick Smith, an English schoolmaster at Grafton, and his wife, Mary Jane, née Evans, of Sydney. He was educated at ...