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Cazalet, Edward (1827–1883), merchant and industrialist, was born on 9 November 1827 at Brighton, the youngest of the seven children of Peter Clement Cazalet (1785–1859), merchant and Russian consul, and his wife, Olympia (d. 1848). Of Huguenot extraction the Cazalets had established strong business connections in ...

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Cotesworth, William (c. 1668–1726), merchant and industrialist, was born the second surviving son of Charles Cotesworth (1637–1687) of Eggleston, co. Durham, a yeoman farmer, and his wife, Anne (d. 1712). His eldest brother, Charles, remained on the land while Cotesworth himself was apprenticed in March 1683 to a prosperous ...

Article

Fox, Robert Were (1754–1818), merchant and industrial entrepreneur, was born on 5 July 1754 in Fowey, Cornwall, the second of the five sons of George Croker Fox (d. 1807) and his wife, Mary. The Foxes were a Quaker family holding a long-established and significant position in Cornish commercial life. As mine owner, merchant, and shipping agent, ...

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See Maclure, Edward Craig

Article

Women in trade and industry in York (act. c. 1300–c. 1500), were enfranchised in some numbers as citizens in their own right, but there is no evidence that they were allowed any political voice. Equally, although the freedom of York was by the later middle ages a prerequisite for persons to set up shop and employ labour, it did not constitute a significant means of access to careers in commerce for women. Some women were enfranchised by right of patrimony—perhaps a reflection of their social status—others as petty retailers such as hucksters, chapwomen, and upholders. A handful occupied more significant niches, for example ...

Article

Women traders and artisans in London (act. c. 1200–c. 1500), formed a significant group within the city's workforce at every social level. City custom allowed them considerable economic opportunities. No more than men are they commonly recorded before about 1250, but thereafter wills and the records alike of city government and of ...