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Peregrine Bertie, thirteenth Baron Willoughby of Willoughby, Beck, and Eresby (1555–1601) by unknown artist The Trustees of the Grimsthorpe and Drummond Castle Trust Ltd. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Bertie, Peregrine, thirteenth Baron Willoughby of Willoughby, Beck, and Eresby (1555–1601), nobleman and soldier, was born on 12 October 1555 in Wesel, Cleves, the only son of Richard Bertie (1517–1582), landowner and religious evangelical, and his wife, Katherine [see Bertie, Katherine, duchess of Suffolk (1519–1580)...

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Caulfeild, Toby, first Baron Caulfeild of Charlemont (bap. 1565, d. 1627), soldier, politician, and landowner, was baptized on 2 December 1565 at Great Milton, Oxfordshire, a younger son of Alexander Caulfeild. Nothing is known of his early years or education, but from 1590 he pursued a military career, sailing on ...

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Thomas Cecil, first earl of Exeter (1542–1623) by unknown artist, c. 1610 The Burghley House Collection. Photograph: Photographic Survey, Courtauld Institute of Art, London

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Cecil, Thomas, first earl of Exeter (1542–1623), courtier and soldier, was born in Cambridge on 5 May 1542, the eldest son of William Cecil, first Baron Burghley (1520/21–1598), and his first wife, Mary (c.1520–1544), sister of John Cheke. His mother died when he was less than two years old and he never seems to have aroused any affection in his puritanical stepmother, ...

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Walter Devereux, first earl of Essex (1539–1576) by unknown artist, 1575? [after original, 1572] © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Devereux, Walter, first earl of Essex (1539–1576), nobleman and adventurer, was born on 16 September 1539 at Chartley, Staffordshire, the eldest son of Sir Richard Devereux and his wife, Dorothy, daughter of George Hastings, first earl of Huntingdon. Sir Richard, who was created a knight of the Order of the Garter on 20 February 1548, died the same year, in the lifetime of his father, ...

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Grey, Thomas, fifteenth Baron Grey of Wilton (1575–1614), soldier and courtier, was born on 21 October 1575, the son and heir of Arthur Grey, fourteenth Baron Grey of Wilton (1536–1593), lord deputy of Ireland, and his second wife, Jane Sibella (d. 1615)...

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William Herbert, first earl of Pembroke (1506/77–1570) by unknown artist, 1567 Collection of the Earl of Pembroke and Trustees of Wilton House Trust, Wilton House, Salisbury, UK

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Herbert, William, first earl of Pembroke (1506/7–1570), soldier and magnate, was the second son of Richard Herbert (d. 1510) of Ewyas, a gentleman usher to Henry VII, and his second wife, Margaret, daughter of Sir Matthew Cradock of Swansea. His paternal grandfather was ...

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Howard, Sir George (b. before 1523, d. 1580), soldier and courtier, was the third son of Lord Edmund Howard (1478–1539) and his first wife, Joyce or Jocasta (d. c.1530), daughter and coheir of Sir Richard Culpeper of Oxenhoath, Kent, and widow of ...

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Jermyn, Sir Thomas (bap. 1573, d. 1644/5), soldier and courtier, was baptized on 12 February 1573 at Rushbrooke, Suffolk, the eldest son of Sir Robert Jermyn (1538/9–1614) of Rushbrooke Hall, a leading puritan and administrator in the county, and his wife, Judith (...

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Lowther, Sir Richard (1532–1608), landowner and soldier, was born on 14 February 1532 in Hartsop Hall, Westmorland, the eldest of the six children of Hugh Lowther (c.1510–1555) and Dorothy Clifford (d. 1562). She was the daughter of Henry Clifford, tenth Baron Clifford...

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Alexander Ranaldson Macdonell of Glengarry (1773–1828) by Sir Henry Raeburn, 1812 National Gallery of Scotland

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Macdonell, Alexander Ranaldson, of Glengarry (1773–1828), chief of clan Macdonell or Macdonnell of Glengarry and soldier, was born on 15 September 1773 at Invergarry, Inverness-shire, the first of nine children of Duncan Macdonell (c.1744–1788), chief of clan Macdonell of Glengarry, and ...

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Manners, Henry, second earl of Rutland (1526–1563), courtier and soldier, was born on 23 September 1526 and baptized after 24 December at Elsinges Manor, Enfield, Middlesex, the eldest son of five sons and six daughters of Thomas Manners, first earl of Rutland (c. 1497–1543)...

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Metcalfe, Edward Dudley [Fruity] (1887–1957), soldier and courtier, was born on 16 January 1887 in Dublin, the only son of Edward Metcalfe of the Irish General Prisons' Board, and his wife, Edith Maud Mary Howard-Hamilton. He was educated privately and at Trinity College, Dublin...

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Mewtas [Mewtis], Sir Peter (d. 1562), soldier and courtier, was the son of Philip Mewtas and Elisabeth Foxley, and grandson of Frenchman John Mewtas, French secretary to Henry VII and Henry VIII between 1491 and 1522. He was a man of action: tall, thickset, with a long fair beard, and expert in small arms, first coming to notice in ...

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Godfrey Charles Morgan, Viscount Tredegar (1831–1913) by J. Charlton, 1884 [centre] reproduced with permission of Tredegar House

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Morgan, Godfrey Charles, Viscount Tredegar (1831–1913), soldier and landowner, was born at Ruperra Castle, Glamorgan, on 28 April 1831, the second son of Sir Charles Morgan Robinson Morgan (1792–1875), MP for Brecon Borough for three periods between 1812 and 1847 and heir to the ...