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Bader, Ernest (1890–1982), chemical manufacturer and industrial reformer, was born in Regensdorf, Switzerland, on 24 November 1890, the youngest of thirteen children of a protestant farmer, Gottlieb Bader, and his wife, Barbara Meier. He was expelled from school at the age of twelve and went to work as a menial in a ...

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Cronshaw, Cecil John Turrell (1889–1961), industrial chemist and businessman, was born on 13 June 1889 at Heywood in Lancashire, the son of William Robert Cronshaw, a commercial traveller, and his wife, Anne Elizabeth, née Turrell. He was educated at Bury grammar school and apprenticed for a time to ...

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Crosfield, John (1832–1901), chemical manufacturer, was born in Warrington, Lancashire, on 11 February 1832, the youngest in the family of five sons and three daughters of Joseph Crosfield and his wife, Elizabeth Goad. He received a Quaker education in Penkelt, Cheshire, and at ...

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Hurter, Ferdinand (1844–1898), industrial chemist, was born on 15 March 1844 in Schaffhausen, Switzerland, the only son of the two children of Tobias Hurter, bookbinder, and his wife, Anna Oechslein. He went to the Gymnasium at Schaffhausen, and then, after apprenticeship with a dyer in ...

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Messel, Rudolph (1848–1920), industrial chemist, was born on 14 January 1848 in Darmstadt, the second of five children of Simon Messel, banker and his wife, Amelia. After his father died in 1859 he was sent to a Huguenot school in Friedrichsdorf. He attended the federal polytechnic in ...