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Carpenter, Mary (1807–1877), educationist and penal reformer, was born on 3 April 1807 at Exeter, the eldest of six children of the Unitarian minister Lant Carpenter (1780–1840) and his wife, Anna Penn (1782?–1856), a supervisor of schools for girls. The Carpenters belonged to the intellectual aristocracy of English puritanism, a world largely set apart from the wider society. Piety, an exacting sense of obligation, and reforming principles marked the household. Though vowed to tolerance, the ...


Thomas L. Hodgkin

revised by Mark Pottle

Fry, (Sara) Margery (1874–1958), penal reformer and college head, was born at Highgate, London, on 11 March 1874, the eighth child and sixth daughter of Sir Edward Fry (1827–1918), judge of the High Court, Chancery Division, and his wife, Mariabella Hodgkin (1833–1930). Joan Mary Fry...


(Sara) Margery Fry (1874–1958) by Claude Rogers, 1939 © Estate of Claude Rogers; collection National Portrait Gallery, London


Maconochie [formerly M'Konochie], Alexander (1787–1860), geographer and penal reformer, was born on 11 February 1787 in Edinburgh, the only child of the second marriage of Alexander M'Konochie (the later spelling was adopted in 1832), a lawyer and commissioner for the board of customs...


Told, Silas (1711–1778), schoolmaster and prison visitor, was born at the Lime Kilns in Bristol on 3 April 1711 of 'very creditable' parentage. His father, a physician like his paternal grandfather, lost money invested in the building of a wet dock and died at sea. His mother was the daughter of ...