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Aves, Ernest Harry (1857–1917), social investigator and civil servant, was born on 30 August 1857 at Cleveland Villa, Station Road, Cambridge, the son of William Owen Aves, tailor and woollen draper, and his wife, Mary Ann Coales. He was educated in Cambridge at ...

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Bernard Bosanquet (1848–1923) by Walter Stoneman, 1917 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bosanquet, Bernard (1848–1923), philosopher and social theorist, was born on 14 June 1848 at Rock Hall, near Alnwick, the youngest of five sons of the Revd Robert William Bosanquet (1800–1880), of Rock, Northumberland, and formerly rector of Bolingbroke, Lincolnshire, son of Charles Bosanquet (1769–1850)...

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Eden, Sir Frederick Morton, second baronet (1766–1809), insurance company manager and writer on the state of the poor, was born at Ashtead, Surrey, the eldest son of Sir Robert Eden (created a baronet in 1776), governor of Maryland, and grandson of Sir Robert Eden, ...

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Hewitt, Margaret (1928–1991), sociologist and churchwoman, was born on 25 October 1928 at 63 Seedley Road, Pendleton, Salford, Lancashire, the daughter of Robert Henry Hewitt, who worked in the local education office, and his wife, Jessie, née Jones. She was educated at Pendleton girls' high school...

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Hobhouse, Leonard Trelawny (1864–1929), social philosopher and journalist, was born on 8 September 1864 at St Ive, near Liskeard, Cornwall, the youngest of the seven children of the Revd Reginald Hobhouse (1818–1895), rector of St Ive for fifty years and archdeacon of Bodmin...

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Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse (1864–1929) by Elliott & Fry British Library of Political and Economic Science

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Hobson, John Atkinson (1858–1940), social theorist and economist, was born on 6 July 1858 at Iron Gate, Derby, the second son of William Hobson (1825–1897), founder, editor, and part proprietor of the Derbyshire Advertiser and twice mayor of Derby, and his wife, Josephine Atkinson...

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John Atkinson Hobson (1858–1940) by unknown photographer British Library of Political and Economic Science

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Jenkin, (Alfred) Kenneth Hamilton (1900–1980), social historian and industrial archaeologist, was born at Green Lane, Redruth, Cornwall, on 29 October 1900, the only child of Alfred Hamilton Jenkin, solicitor (d. 1919), and his wife, Amy Louisa, née Keep. Born into a family connected with mining since the mid-eighteenth century, he took a special interest in the mines and mining people of his native county from an early age. He was educated privately, then at school in ...

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Jones [née Savage], Kathleen [Kay] (1922–2010), historian and scholar of social policy, was born on 7 April 1922 at the Royal Free Hospital, St Pancras, London, the daughter of William Robert Thomas Savage, a furnisher's porter, and later a groundsman, and his wife, ...

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Thomas Humphrey Marshall (1893–1981) by Howard Coster, 1944 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Marshall, Thomas Humphrey (1893–1981), sociologist, was born in fashionable Bloomsbury, in London, on 19 December 1893. He was the second son and the fourth of six children of a successful architect, William Cecil Marshall, and his wife, Margaret, the daughter of Archdeacon J. F. Lloyd...

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Penty, Arthur Joseph (1875–1937), architect and social thinker, was born at 16 Elmwood Street, St Laurence, York, on 17 March 1875, the second son of Walter Green Penty (1852–1902), architect, and his wife, Emma Seller. After attending St Peter's School in York he was apprenticed in 1888 to his father. Working in the leading architectural firm in late Victorian ...

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Phelps, Lancelot Ridley (1853–1936), college head and authority on social administration, the third son of Thomas Prankerd Phelps, rector of Ridley, Kent, and honorary canon of Rochester Cathedral, and his wife, Laura, fourth daughter of Sir Percival Hart Dyke, fifth baronet, was born at ...

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Lancelot Ridley Phelps (1853–1936) by Briton Riviere, 1916 courtesy of the Provost and Fellows of Oriel College, Oxford

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Reckitt, Maurice Benington (1888–1980), writer and Christian sociologist, was born in Beverley, East Riding of Yorkshire, on 19 June 1888, the eldest of the three children and elder son of Arthur Benington Reckitt and his wife, Helen Annie Thomas. His parents' influence on his character was both creditable and corrosive. ...

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Saunders, Sir Alexander Morris Carr- (1886–1966), sociologist and academic administrator, was born at Reigate, Surrey, on 14 January 1886, by some fifteen years the youngest child of James Carr-Saunders, a wealthy underwriter, and his wife, Flora Anne Tower. He was proud of his descent from the architect ...

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Shenfield [née Farrow], Dame Barbara Estelle (1919–2004), social scientist and voluntary worker, was born on 9 March 1919, at 207 Bearwood Road, Smethwick, Staffordshire, the youngest of the five children of George William Farrow (1878–1952), a mechanical engineer, and his wife, Jane, ...