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Poekrich [Pockrich], Richard (1696/7–1759), inventor of musical glasses and social and economic reformer, was born in Aghnamallagh, near the town of Monaghan, Ireland, and was descended from a Cromwellian planter family which had been granted land in co. Monaghan in the seventeenth century. His father, a landed gentleman also named ...

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Sadler, Michael Thomas (1780–1835), social reformer and political economist, was born on 3 January 1780 at the Old Hall, Doveridge, Snelston, Derbyshire. He was the youngest of the six children of James Sadler (d. 1800?), a gentleman farmer at Doveridge who claimed descent from ...

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Michael Thomas Sadler (1780–1835) by William Robinson, in or before 1830 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Sherratt, John (bap. 1718, d. 1788), entrepreneur and social reformer, was baptized on 20 June 1718 at St Martin-in-the-Fields, London, the son of William Sherratt and Mary, née Trusler. Sherratt (who also spelled his name Sherrott) had a varied and eventful career as a businessman, through which he became involved in politics, foreign affairs, and social reform. He was twice married: first to ...

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Toynbee, Arnold (1852–1883), social reformer and political economist, was born at 18 Savile Row, London, on 23 August 1852, the second son of Joseph Toynbee (1815–1866), an eminent aural surgeon, and his wife, Harriet Holmes. Toynbee owed much in his early years to the influence of his father, who, though he died when his son was only fourteen, had already inspired him with a love of literature and with the foundations of those social ideals which were afterwards the main interest of his life. ...

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Arnold Toynbee (1852–1883) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London