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Thomas Richard Allinson (1858–1918) by Ray, pubd 1911 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Allinson, Thomas Richard (1858–1918), dietitian and businessman, was born at 43 Rumford Street, Hulme, Lancashire, on 29 March 1858, the son of Thomas Allinson, a bookkeeper, and his wife, Ellen (formerly Sims). He left school at fifteen and, aiming to be a doctor, he subsidized his studies by becoming a chemist's assistant. In 1879 he graduated LRCP (...

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Ashton, Mark Christian (1960–1987), communist and gay activist, was born at Woodfield Maternity Home, Oldham, Lancashire, on 19 May 1960, the first of two children and eldest son of Robert Ashton, cotton carder, and his wife, Joan, née Simpson. He grew up and was educated in ...

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Aukland, Jane Munday (bap. 1836, d. 1925), temperance campaigner, was born in Newington, Surrey, where she was baptized on 21 February 1836, the daughter of John Langfield, greengrocer, and his wife, Mary Ann, née Raymond (d. 1839). In 1865 she married John Loxley Aukland (1820/21–1917)...

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Balfour, Clara Lucas [née Clara Lucas] (1808–1878), advocate of women's advancement and temperance activist, was born in the New Forest, Hampshire, on 21 December 1808. She was the only child of John Lydell Lucas (c.1767–1818), a butcher and cattle dealer from ...

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Lady Evelyn Barbara Balfour (1898–1990) by Elliott & Fry, 1943 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Balfour, Lady Evelyn Barbara [Eve] (1898–1990), promoter of organic farming and a founder of the Soil Association, was born on 16 July 1898 in Dublin, the fourth child of Gerald William Balfour, second earl of Balfour (1853–1945), and Lady Elizabeth Edith Balfour (1867–1942)...

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Balgarnie, Florence (1856–1928), feminist and temperance campaigner, was born at 2 Belle Vue Terrace, Scarborough, Yorkshire, on 19 August 1856, the eldest of three daughters of the Revd Robert Balgarnie (1826–1899) and his wife, Martha Rooke. Her father, minister of the South Cliff Congregational Church...

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Robert Harrison

revised by Virginia Smith

Banting, William (1796/7–1878), writer on diet, was a funeral director in St James's Street, London. He may have been the William Banting, son of Thomas Banting and his wife, Ann, who was baptized at St Martin-in-the-Fields, Westminster, in December 1796. On 20 January 1818 he married at ...

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Bayley, Mary (b. 1816, d. in or after 1892), temperance activist and writer, was born in Market Lavington, Wiltshire. Nothing is known of her early life. Her husband, George Bayley (1807–1888), was born in Rotherhithe, served in the merchant navy between the ages of sixteen and forty-four, and was an elder brother of the ...

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Bedford, Arthur (bap. 1668, d. 1745), Church of England clergyman and moral reformer, was baptized on 8 September 1668 at Tiddenham, Gloucestershire, the son of Richard Bedford, who was himself a Church of England clergyman. He was educated in 'grammar learning' (Bodl. Oxf., MS Rawl. J, fol. 2, fol. 160...

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Begbie, (Edward) Harold (1871–1929), journalist, Salvationist, and political and social reformer, was born at Fornham St Martin, Suffolk, on 24 June 1871, the fifth son in a family of seven sons and four daughters of the Revd Mars Hamilton Begbie (...

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Bond, Charles John (1856–1939), surgeon and advocate of voluntary euthanasia, was born at Bittesby, in the Lutterworth area of Leicestershire, on 27 October 1856, the son of George Bond, a farmer and grazier, and his wife, Elizabeth Higginson. He was educated at Repton School...

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Bowly, Samuel (1802–1884), slavery abolitionist and temperance advocate, the son of Samuel Bowly, a miller at Bibury, Gloucestershire, was born in Cirencester on 23 March 1802. During his youth he attended a Quaker school at Nailsworth and then worked at his father's flour mill. In 1827 he married ...

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Helen Grace Brook, Lady Brook (1907–1997) by Elisabeth Novick, 1968 © News International Newspapers Ltd

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Brook [née Knewstub], Helen Grace, Lady Brook (1907–1997), advocate of birth control, was born on 12 October 1907 at the Chenil Gallery, 183a Kings Road, Chelsea, London. She was the eldest among the six children of John Knewstub, who ran the gallery, and ...

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Brigid Antonia Brophy (1929–1995) by Mark Gerson, 1966 © Mark Gerson; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Brophy, Brigid Antonia [married name Brigid Antonia Levey, Lady Levey] (1929–1995), writer and campaigner, was born at 79 Uxbridge Road, Ealing, London, on 12 June 1929, the second child of John Brophy (1899–1965), a Liverpool-born writer and editor of Irish descent, and his wife, ...

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Buckley, Wilfred (1873–1933), promoter of clean milk and collector of antique glass, was born at 27 Wheeleys Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, on 13 June 1873, the second son and second of the four children of Henry Buckley (1838–1903), general merchant, and his wife, Caroline Therese (1847–1891)...

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Burnet, Gilbert (1690–1726), writer on religious and moral subjects, was born in Salisbury on 15 November 1690, the second son of Gilbert Burnet, bishop of Salisbury (1643–1715) and his second wife, Mary Scott (1659/60–1698). William Burnet (1688–1729) and Sir Thomas Burnet (1694–1753) were his brothers. His mother, who was Dutch, of Scottish ancestry, died on a visit to ...