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Alfonsi, Petrus (fl. 1106–1126), scholar and translator of scientific works, was born in northern Spain, to Jewish parents. He was baptized a Christian on 29 June 1106 in Huesca, Aragon, with the names of the apostle on whose feast day the baptism took place and of his godfather, ...

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Gimpel, Jean Victor (1918–1996), cultural historian and historian of medieval technology, was born in Paris on 10 October 1918. Of Jewish descent, he was the third son of René Gimpel (d. 1944), a leading art dealer and friend of Renoir and Proust...

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Hart, Eliakim ben Abraham [Jacob] (1745x50–1814), writer in Hebrew on religion and science, was born in London probably between 1745 and 1750, the son of Abraham Hart. The name of Hart's mother is unknown, but his paternal grandfather had come from Eisenstadt in ...

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Lakatos, Imre [formerly Imré Lipsitz] (1922–1974), philosopher of mathematics and of science, was born Imré Lipsitz on 9 November 1922 in Debrecen, Hungary, the only child of Jacob Márton Lipsitz, a wine merchant, and Márgit Herczfeld, both Hungarian Jews. His father left the family home shortly after ...

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Sarmento, Jacob de Castro [formerly Henrique de Castro] (1692?–1762), physician and scientific writer, was born at Bragança, Portugal, as Henrique, the third son of Francisco de Castro de Almeida (b. 1651/2), tobacco merchant (estanqueiro), and his second wife, ...

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Jacob de Castro Sarmento (1692?–1762) by Richard Houston (after Robert Edge Pine) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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E. A. Underwood

revised by Anita McConnell

Singer, Charles Joseph (1876–1960), historian of medicine and science, was born on 2 November 1876 at 22 Brunswick Square, Camberwell, London, the fifth child and fourth son of Simeon Singer (1848–1906), headmaster of Jews' College School and minister of Borough New Synagogue, and his wife, ...

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Charles Joseph Singer (1876–1960) by unknown photographer Wellcome Library, London