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Allen, Norman Percy (1903–1972), metallurgist, was born in Wrexham, north Wales, on 5 June 1903, the fifth of ten children, seven girls and three boys, of Sidney Edward Allen, an accountant in the borough treasurer's department at Wrexham, and his wife, Emily Eliza Davis...

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Andrews, Thomas (1847–1907), metallurgist and ironmaster, was born at 19 Carver Street, Sheffield, on 16 February 1847, the only son of Thomas Andrews and his wife, Mary Bolsover. Thomas Andrews senior was a partner in the Wortley ironworks and the Wortley Silkstone colliery...

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Atkinson, Stephen (fl. 1586–1619), metallurgist, whose early life is not documented, was a native of London. After serving an apprenticeship to Francis Tiver, a refiner of gold and silver, he was admitted a finer in the Tower of London mint about 1586. After a year spent working at the ...

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Austen, Sir William Chandler Roberts- (1843–1902), metallurgist, was born at Kennington, Surrey, on 3 March 1843, the eldest son of George Roberts, of Welsh descent, who worked for the Hudson's Bay Company, and his wife, Maria Louisa, daughter of William Chandler MD of ...

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Bragg, Sir (William) Lawrence (1890–1971), physicist and crystallographer, was born on 31 March 1890 at 58/60 Lefevre Terrace, Adelaide, Australia, the elder son (the younger, Robert, was killed at Gallipoli in 1915) and eldest of the three children of Sir William Henry Bragg (1862–1942)...

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Sir (William) Lawrence Bragg (1890–1971) by Elliott & Fry © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Brearley, Harry (1871–1948), metallurgist, was born on 18 February 1871 at 23 Spital Street, Sheffield, the youngest of five sons and the eighth of nine children of John Brearley, steelworker, and his wife, Jane Senior. Brearley's father was 'an expert steel melter and also an expert ale-supper' (...

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Cahn, Robert Wolfgang (1924–2007), materials scientist, was born on 9 September 1924 in Fürth, Bavaria, the first of two children of Martin Cahn (1896–1963), accountant and merchant, and his wife, Else, née Heinemann (1896–1962). His family was Jewish, assimilated into the business community. His maternal grandfather, ...

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Robert Wolfgang Cahn (1924–2007) by Godfrey Argent, 1992 © Godfrey Argent Studio

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C. H. Desch

revised by Anita McConnell

Carpenter, Sir (Henry Cort) Harold (1875–1940), metallurgist, was born at Clifton, Bristol, on 6 February 1875, the second son of William Lant Carpenter, engineer, of Bristol, and his wife, Annie Grace Viret. He was a grandson of the naturalist William Benjamin Carpenter and a great-great-grandson of ...

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L. A. Jordan

revised by K. D. Watson

Cullen, William (1867–1948), chemist and metallurgist, was born at Shettleston, Glasgow, on 18 May 1867, the son of William Cullen and his wife, Margaret Johnston, of Uddingston, Glasgow. He came from a family engaged in the woollen industry and was educated in Glasgow...

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Desch, Cecil Henry (1874–1958), metallurgist, was born at 99 Hemingford Road, Islington, London, on 7 September 1874, the eldest child in the family of two sons and one daughter of Henry Thomas Desch, surveyor, and his wife, Harriet Ingerson, of Pilton, Devon. Desch...

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Sir James Dewar (1842–1923) by Alexander Scott or Ethel Glazebrook, 1902 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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H. M. Ross

revised by Trevor I. Williams

Dewar, Sir James (1842–1923), chemist and physicist, was born at Kincardine-on-Forth, Scotland, on 20 September 1842, the youngest son of Thomas Dewar, vintner, and his wife, Ann Eadie, daughter of a shipowner. At the age of ten his schooling was interrupted by an attack of rheumatic fever, and during the period of incapacity that followed he occupied himself in making fiddles—an exercise to which he was wont to attribute his manipulative skill. On recovering he was sent to ...

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Sir (Harold) Montague Finniston (1912–1991) by Godfrey Argent Studios Godfrey Argent Studios / Royal Society

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Finniston, Sir (Harold) Montague [Monty] (1912–1991), metallurgist and businessman, was born at 26 Aikenhead Road, Govanhill, Glasgow, on 15 August 1912, the eldest child in the family of two sons and three daughters of Robert Finniston and his wife, Esther, née Diamond. Both parents were Russian-Jewish immigrants; the original family name was ...

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Graeme J. N. Gooday and Colin A. Hempstead

Foster, George Carey (1835–1919), chemist and physicist, was born in October 1835 at Sabden in Lancashire, the only son of George Foster, calico printer and justice of the peace in Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire. After education at private schools Foster...

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Fowler, Sir Henry (1870–1938), mechanical engineer and metallurgist, was born in Port Street, Bengeworth, Evesham, Worcestershire, on 29 July 1870, the eldest son of Henry Fowler, cabinet-maker, upholsterer, and house agent, and his wife, Mary Hughes. He was educated at Evesham grammar school...

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Gilchrist, Percy Carlyle (1851–1935), metallurgist, was born in Lyme Regis on 27 December 1851, the elder son (there were also two daughters) of Alexander Gilchrist (1828–1861), barrister and writer, and his wife, Anne Gilchrist, née Burrows (1828–1885), biographer and essayist, daughter of John Parker Burrows...

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Guggenheim, Edward Armand (1901–1970), physical chemist, physicist, and statistician, was born on 11 August 1901 in Manchester, the elder son of the family of three children of Armand Guggenheim, a senior partner in E. Spinner & Co., importers of cotton and exporters of cotton cloth, and his wife, ...