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John Dalton (1766–1844) by Thomas Phillips, 1835 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Dalton, John (1766–1844), chemist and natural philosopher, was born (by his own account) on 6 September 1766 at Eaglesfield, near Cockermouth in Cumberland, second of the four children and second son of Joseph Dalton, a weaver, and Deborah Greenup. His parents had married in 1755; both were members of the ...

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Gough, John (1757–1825), natural and experimental philosopher, was born in Kendal, Westmorland, on 17 January 1757, the eldest child of Nathan Gough (d. 1800) and his wife, Susannah (1731–1798), at their home at Yard 77, Stramongate. His father, a shearman-dyer, was described as a 'wealthy tradesman' (...

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Thomas Young (1773–1829) by Charles Turner, pubd 1830 (after Sir Thomas Lawrence, after 1820) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Young, Thomas (1773–1829), physician and natural philosopher, was born on 13 June 1773 at Milverton, Somerset, the eldest of ten children of Thomas Young, cloth merchant and banker, and his wife, Sarah, daughter of Robert Davis of Minehead, Somerset, and his wife, Hannah Brocklesby...