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Chamberlain, Robert (1632?–1696), merchant and mathematician, may have been the Robert Chamberlain who attended Merchant Taylors' School for one year in 1645. If so, he was born on 13 June 1632 in Whitefriars, London, the youngest of ten children of Robert Chamberlain...

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Green, George (1793–1841), mathematical physicist and miller, was born on 14 July 1793, probably at Wheatsheaf Yard, Nottingham, the eldest child and only son of George Green (1758–1829), miller, and his wife, Sarah (1770–1826), née Butler. After study for four terms at an 'academy' in ...

Article

R. E. Anderson

revised by I. Grattan-Guinness

Ivory, James (1765–1842), mathematician and mill manager, born in Dundee, on 17 February 1765, was the eldest son of James Ivory, watchmaker. At the age of fourteen he matriculated at St Andrews University, and after six years' study with a view to becoming a minister of the Scottish church, he went to ...

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E. I. Carlyle

revised by Adrian Rice

Smith, James (1805–1872), merchant and mathematician, was born in Liverpool on 26 March 1805, the son of Joshua Smith and Esther Bartley. He entered a merchant's office at an early age, and, after remaining there seventeen years, started in business on his own account. (He retired in 1855.) He studied geometry and mathematics for practical purposes, and made some mechanical experiments with a view to facilitating mining operations. Although his results in this area were not made public, he did publish numerous works relating to his investigations into the geometrical problem known as ‘squaring the circle’. This problem—equivalent to finding the exact value of π—was then believed, and has since been proved, to be impossible. In 1859 he published a work entitled ...

Article

Stirling, James (1692–1770), mathematician and mine manager, known within his family as the Venetian, was born in May 1692, the third son of Archibald Stirling (1651–1715), of Garden, Stirlingshire, and his second wife, Anna, eldest daughter of Sir Alexander Hamilton of Haggs and his wife, ...