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Abbot, John (1751–1840?), naturalist and artist, born at Bennet Street, St James, London, on 1 June 1751, was the second of the five children of John Abbot (d. 1787), a prosperous attorney, and his wife, Ann Clousinger. As a youth, Abbot developed a passion for entomology and for drawing, an enthusiasm that was supported by his father, who retained ...

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B. D. Jackson

revised by P. E. Kell

Abel, Clarke (1789–1826), naturalist and surgeon, was born on 5 September 1789, the son of Matthias Abel. After schooling at Merchant Taylors', he was educated for the medical profession and served as a surgeon in Norwich. He is sometimes styled MD but it is not clear if he qualified as such. He accompanied ...

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Peter Medawar

revised by L. Wolpert

Abercrombie, Michael (1912–1979), biologist, was born at The Gallows, Ryton, Dymock, Gloucestershire, on 14 August 1912, the third son in the family of three sons and a daughter of Lascelles Abercrombie (1881–1938), poet and critic, and his wife, Catherine (1881–1968), daughter of Owen Gwatkin...

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Sir Edward Penley Abraham (1913–1999) by Wolfgang Suschitzky, 1944 [Oxford scientists [left to right]: , Wilson Baker, and Sir Ernst Chain (1906-1979), Sir Robert Robinson (1886–1975)] © Wolfgang Suschitzky / National Portrait Gallery, London

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Abraham, Sir Edward Penley (1913–1999), biochemist, was born at 47 Southview Road, Southampton, on 10 June 1913, the son of Albert Penley Abraham, a customs and excise officer, and his wife, Mary Abraham, née Hearne. Educated at King Edward VI School, Southampton, and ...

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Adams, Andrew Leith (1827–1882), army surgeon and naturalist, born on 21 March 1827, was the son of Francis Adams (1796–1861), surgeon, and his wife, Elspeth Shaw (d. 1845). Appointed army surgeon in 1848, Adams joined the 22nd (Cheshire) regiment and was posted to ...

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Albin, Eleazar (d. 1742?), naturalist and watercolour painter, may have been born somewhere in the German states to a family named Weiss. Nothing is known of his early life, although he later claimed, in his Natural History of Birds (1731–8), to have been '...

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A. F. Pollard

revised by Peter Osborne

Allman, George James (1812–1898), naturalist, was born in February 1812 in Cork, the eldest son of James Allman of Bandon, co. Cork. He was educated at the Belfast Academical Institution and at Trinity College, Dublin, where he graduated BA in 1839 and MB in 1843. Although he subsequently graduated MD in 1847, having become a fellow of the ...

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Anderson, William (c. 1748–1778), surgeon and naturalist, was born in Scotland, probably in the area of North Berwick, Haddingtonshire. Nothing is known of his immediate family other than the existence of two sisters, Beth and Rabinah. He was educated at Edinburgh University, enrolling as an anatomy student for the year 1762–3. At his examination for the navy on 1 December 1768 he qualified as surgeon's first mate and on 1 November 1770 he was advanced to surgeon of a first-rate ship, subsequently serving in the ...

Article

James Britten

revised by D. E. Allen

Andrews, William (bap. 1802, d. 1880), naturalist, was baptized at St Pancras, Chichester, on 8 January 1802, the second child of William Andrews, a printer in that city, and his wife, Jane, née Crawford. A printer of that surname, in business at the same address by 1755 and on record as having come from ...

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Mary Anning (1799–1847) by unknown artist, before 1842 © The Natural History Museum, London

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Anning, Mary (1799–1847), fossil collector and dealer, was born on 21 May 1799 in a seaside house in Lyme Regis, Dorset. She and her brother Joseph (1796–1849) were the only surviving children of Richard Anning (c.1766–1810), cabinet-maker and carpenter, and his wife, ...

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C. L. Falkiner

revised by P. E. Kell

Archer, William (1830–1897), naturalist and librarian, was born on 6 May 1830 at Maghera, co. Down, the eldest son of the Revd Richard Archer, perpetual curate at Maghera and a member of a family long settled in co. Wexford, and Jane Matilda, daughter of ...

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Arderon, William (1702/3–1767), naturalist, whose origins are otherwise obscure, was the only son of an 'indulgent father' (Forster MS 47c. 12, fol. 6r). He was born and brought up in the north of England, where he was educated at a public school until he was eighteen. At the age of nineteen he became an excise officer, in which capacity he served for twenty years, working within the vicinity of ...

Article

G. T. Bettany

revised by Richard Drayton

Arnold, Joseph (1782–1818), naturalist and surgeon, was born on 28 December 1782 at Beccles, Suffolk, the fourth son of Edward Arnold, a tanner, and his wife, Hannah. He was apprenticed there to Dr Willing Crowfoot, surgeon and apothecary, and attended Edinburgh University from 1803, graduating MD in 1807. His interest in natural history led to communications to the ...

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Arnott, Struther (1934–2013), molecular biologist and university principal, was born at 39 Burnhead Road, Larkhall, Lanarkshire, on 25 September 1934, the son of Charles McCann, a farmer, and Christina Struthers Arnott (1900–1965), an honours graduate in chemistry and mathematics who later became a schoolteacher. He was educated at ...

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Brigitte Alice Askonas (1923–2013) by unknown photographer, 1970s © reserved; National Institute of Medical Research

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Askonas, Brigitte Alice [Ita] (1923–2013), immunologist and biochemist, was born on 1 April 1923 in Vienna, the second child and only daughter of Czech parents who were Jewish converts to Catholicism, Carl Frederick (later Charles Frederick) Askonas (1893–1946) and his wife, Rose, née...

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Astbury, William Thomas (1898–1961), physicist and molecular biologist, was born on 25 February 1898 at Longton, Staffordshire, the fourth of seven children and the eldest son of William Edwin Astbury, potter's turner, of Longton, and his wife, Clara Dean. Astbury was educated at ...

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Atkinson [married name Calvert], (Caroline) Louisa Waring (1834–1872), writer and naturalist, was born on 25 February 1834 at Oldbury, Sutton Forest, near Berrima, on the southern highlands of New South Wales, the third daughter and fourth child of Charlotte, née Waring (1796–1867)...