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Adamson, Daniel (1820–1890), engineer and entrepreneur, was born on 30 April 1820 at Shildon, co. Durham. He was the thirteenth of fifteen children, seven sons and eight daughters, born to Daniel Adamson, landlord of the Grey Horse at Shildon, and his wife, Ann...

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Baily, Francis (1774–1844), stockbroker and astronomer, was born at Newbury, Berkshire, on 28 April 1774, the third son of Richard Baily (1744–1814), a banker, and his wife, Sarah Head (1745–1823). At the age of fourteen, following his education at the old grammar school in ...

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Francis Baily (1774–1844) by Thomas Goff Lupton (after Thomas Phillips, 1837) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Bamford, Joseph Cyril (1916–2001), engineer and businessman, was born on 21 June 1916 at The Parks, New Road, Uttoxeter, Staffordshire, the son of Cyril Joseph Bamford, agricultural engineer, and his wife, Dolores Alice, née Turner. His family controlled and managed a long-established farm machinery business. The company, which manufactured balers and other equipment, had been started by his great-great-grandfather in 1812. He was brought up a Roman Catholic. After education at ...

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Joseph Cyril Bamford (1916–2001) by Lucinda Douglas-Menzies, 1989 © Lucinda Douglas-Menzies; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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Barton, John (1789–1852), political economist and botanist, was born on 11 June 1789 in Southwark, London, the son of John Barton (1755–1789) and his second wife, Elizabeth, née Horne (1760–1833). He was the half-brother of Maria Hack, children's writer, and Bernard Barton, poet. The elder ...

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Cornelius Walford

Reviser Robert Brown

Brown, Samuel (1811–1875), actuary and statistician, was born in London on 24 March 1811, the second son in the family of five sons and two daughters of John Aquila Brown (d. 1830), a silversmith, and his wife, Ann Eliza, née Truss (...

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Jennett Humphreys

Reviser Anita McConnell

Chapman, John (1801–1854), engineer and political economist, was born at Loughborough, Leicestershire, on 20 January 1801, the eldest of the three surviving sons of John Chapman, clockmaker of that town. He received his education first at a school kept by Mr Mowbray, and then under the ...

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Cronshaw, Cecil John Turrell (1889–1961), industrial chemist and businessman, was born on 13 June 1889 at Heywood in Lancashire, the son of William Robert Cronshaw, a commercial traveller, and his wife, Anne Elizabeth, née Turrell. He was educated at Bury grammar school and apprenticed for a time to ...

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G. J. Gray

Reviser Anita McConnell

Dodson, James (c. 1705–1757), mathematician and actuary, was the son of John Dodson (b. 1675), citizen and freeman of the Merchant Taylors' Company, and his wife, Elizabeth, who died shortly after his birth. His grandfather, also John Dodson, was a tailor of ...

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Fisk, Sir Ernest Thomas (1886–1965), entrepreneur and developer of radio, was born on 8 August 1886 at Sunbury, Middlesex, the second child of Thomas Harvey Fisk, builder, and his wife, Charlotte Hariette, née Halland. Educated at St Mary's and Sunbury Boys' schools, Fisk...

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Francis, (Bertram) Frederick (1919–1998), engineer and businessman, was born on 15 October 1919 at 30 Sumatra Road, Hampstead, London, the only child of Walter Henry Francis (b. 1892), businessman, and his wife, Florence Eleanor Dell (b. 1898). Fred, as he was usually known, was educated at ...

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Giffen, Sir Robert (1837–1910), economist and statistician, born on 22 July 1837 at Strathaven, Lanarkshire, was the younger son of Robert Giffen, a village grocer and an elder of the Presbyterian church, and his wife, Janet Wiseman. Giffen was educated at the village school. He read all the books he could find and, with his elder brother, ...

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Sir Robert Giffen (1837–1910) by Sydney Prior Hall, pubd 1897 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Gray, Peter (1807/8–1887), actuary and mathematician, was born at Aberdeen. Little is known about his origins, but he was educated at Gordon's Hospital (subsequently Gordon's College) and at Aberdeen University for two years. He developed a passion for mathematics and, in order to assist the work of a friend, took a special interest in the study of life contingencies. This led to honorary membership of the ...

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Gray, Robert (1825–1887), ornithologist and bank official, was born at Dunbar, East Lothian, on 15 August 1825, the son of Archibald Gray, a merchant, and his wife, Agnes Hendre. He was educated at the parish school and at the age of fifteen became an apprentice at the ...

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Griffin, John Joseph (1802–1877), chemist, author, and business manager, the fourth and youngest son of Joseph Griffin (1752–1838), was born at Webb Square in Shoreditch, London, on 22 January 1802. The family later moved to Glasgow where the father sold books and chemicals. The eldest son, ...

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Hamilton, Robert (1743–1829), political economist and mathematician, was born in Edinburgh on 11 June 1743, the eighth son of Gavin Hamilton (1704–1767), bookseller and publisher, and his wife, Helen Balfour. His grandfather Dr William Hamilton (1669–1732) had been professor of divinity and principal in ...

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Holden, Sir Isaac, first baronet (1807–1897), inventor of a wool-combing machine, entrepreneur, and politician, was born on 7 May 1807 at Hurlet, near Paisley, the seventh child of Isaac Holden (d. 1826) and his wife, Alice, née Forrest. His father, a native of ...

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Horne, Sir William Cornelius Van (1843–1915), railway builder and financier in Canada, was born on 3 February 1843 at Chelsea, Will county, Illinois, USA, the eldest son of Cornelius Covenhoven Van Horne, lawyer, and his second wife, Mary Minier Richards. His father's ancestors had emigrated from the ...