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Allen, Ralph (bap. 1693, d. 1764), postal entrepreneur and philanthropist, was baptized on 24 July 1693 in the parish church of St Columb Major in Cornwall, one of four children of Philip Allen (d. 1728). Much remains obscure about his early life, but his father is reputed to have kept an inn in nearby ...

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William Allen (1770–1843) by Henry Perronet Briggs, exh. RA 1844 Museum of the Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

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Leslie Stephen

revised by G. F. Bartle

Allen, William (1770–1843), philanthropist and scientist, was born on 29 August 1770 at Stewart Street, the Old Artillery Ground, Spitalfields, London, the eldest of the six sons of Job Allen (1734–1800) and his wife, Margaret Stafford (d. 1830). His father, a silk manufacturer, was a member of the ...

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Binney, Edward William (1812–1881), geologist and philanthropist, was born on 7 December 1812 at Morton Hall, near Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, the youngest of the seven sons and two daughters of Thomas Binney (1762–1835), landowner and maltster, and his second wife, Elizabeth Cross (d...

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Bouverie, Jacob [formerly Jacob Des Bouverie], first Viscount Folkestone (bap. 1694, d. 1761), patron of science and philanthropist, was baptized at St Katharine Cree church, London, on 14 October 1694, the second son of Sir William Des Bouverie, first baronet (1656–1717), and his second wife, ...

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Edward Allen Brotherton, Baron Brotherton (1856–1930) by Sir Benjamin Stone, 1902 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Brotherton, Edward Allen, Baron Brotherton (1856–1930), chemical manufacturer and philanthropist, was born on 1 April 1856 at 2 Tiverton Place, Ardwick Green, Manchester, the eldest of three children of Theophilus Brotherton, a yarn agent, and his wife, Sarah, née O'Donnell. His relatives included the educational reformer ...

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Churcher, Richard (1659–1723), educational benefactor, was born on 10 July 1659 at Funtington, near Chichester, Sussex, the eldest son of Richard Churcher (d. 1676) and his wife, Elinor (d. 1710). His father was a yeoman farmer in comfortable circumstances who decided, however, that none of his children should follow him in agriculture. ...

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Corbett, John (1817–1901), chemical manufacturer and philanthropist, born at The Delph, Brierley Hill, Staffordshire, on 12 June 1817, was the eldest son in a family of five sons and one daughter of Joseph Corbett and his wife, Hannah. The father, originally a Shropshire...

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Fox, Samson (1838–1903), mechanical and chemical engineer, and benefactor, born at Bowling, near Bradford, Yorkshire, on 11 July 1838, was one of three sons of James Fox, a Leeds cloth-mill worker, and his wife, Sarah Pearson. From the age of ten he worked with his father at the mill; but, showing mechanical aptitude, he was soon apprenticed to the ...

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See Bland, Horatio

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Gibson, George Stacey (1818–1883), botanist and philanthropist, was born on 20 July 1818 at Saffron Walden, Essex, the only child of Wyatt George Gibson (1790–1862) and Deborah, daughter of George Stacey of Alton, Hampshire. At the age of nine he was sent to ...

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Glass, Joseph (1791/2–1867), philanthropist and inventor of machinery for sweeping chimneys, was born at Colchester and spent his early years in Manningtree, where he became a convinced teetotaller. He moved to London and worked as a bricklayer. He married Margaret, who was a year younger than ...

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Marsham, Robert, second Baron Romney (1712–1793), patron of science and philanthropist, was born on 22 August 1712 at Frith Street, Soho, Westminster, and baptized at St Anne's, Soho, on 2 September, the second and only surviving son of Sir Robert Marsham, fifth baronet...

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James Thomas Martin (1933–2013) by David Sandison, 2005 David Sandison / Rex Features / Shutterstock

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Martin, James Thomas (1933–2013), computer systems analyst, author, and philanthropist, was born on 19 October 1933 at the cottage hospital, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Leicestershire, the only child of Thomas Simpson Martin (1900–1977), a cashier at the local sanitary pipe works, and his wife, Mabel Sarah, ...

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Martin, Matthew (1748–1838), natural historian and philanthropist, born in Somerset, was at first engaged in trade at Exeter. He married on 9 July 1773; his wife, Penelope, died on 9 August 1827. An early interest in natural history led Martin to publish at ...

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McClean, Frank (1837–1904), astronomer and educational benefactor, was born at Glasgow on 13 November 1837, the only son of the six children of John Robinson McClean MP FRS FRAS (1813–1873), a civil engineer of repute, and his wife, Anna, née Newsam. He entered ...

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Hugh Frank Newall (1857–1944) by Olive Edis, c. 1926 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Newall, Hugh Frank (1857–1944), astrophysicist and educational benefactor, was born at Ferndene, near Gateshead, on 21 June 1857, the youngest of six children of Robert Stirling Newall (1812–1889), engineer, and his wife, Mary, daughter of Hugh Lee Pattinson FRS (1796–1858), metallurgical chemist and astronomer. At the ...