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Anne [née Anne Hyde], duchess of York (1637–1671), first wife of James II, was born on 12 March 1637 at Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor Park, the eldest daughter of Sir Edward Hyde (1609–1674), created earl of Clarendon in 1661, and Frances, daughter of ...

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Anne (1665–1714), queen of Great Britain and Ireland, was born at St James's Palace, Westminster, on 6 February 1665. She was the fourth child and second daughter of James, duke of York (1633–1701) [see James II and VII], subsequently king of England, Scotland, and Ireland...

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Anne, duchess of York (1637–1671) by Sir Peter Lely, c. 1660 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Charles I (1600–1649), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born in Dunfermline Castle, Scotland, on 19 November 1600 and baptized at the palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh, on 23 December. He was the third child of James VI of Scotland (subsequently James I...

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Charles II (1630–1685), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born on 29 May 1630 at St James's Palace, London, where he was baptized on 27 June, the second (but first surviving) son of Charles I (1600–1649) and Henrietta Maria (1609–1669), the daughter of ...

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Charles II (1630–1685) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1685 Board of Trustees of the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool)

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Charles I (1600–1649) by Sir Anthony Van Dyck, 1635 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Gordon Goodwin

Reviser Sean Kelsey

Elizabeth, Princess (1635–1650), second daughter of Charles I (1600–1649) and Henrietta Maria (1609–1669), was born at St James's Palace on 28 December 1635 and baptized there by William Laud on 2 January 1636. She had not reached her first birthday when her grandmother, ...

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Elizabeth, Princess [Elizabeth Stuart] (1596–1662), queen of Bohemia and electress palatine, consort of Frederick V, eldest and only surviving daughter of James VI of Scotland (James I of England) (1566–1625) and his wife, Anne of Denmark (1574–1619), was born at Falkland Palace, Cupar...

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FitzRoy [formerly Palmer], Henry, first duke of Grafton (1663–1690), naval officer, the second illegitimate son of Charles II (1630–1685) and Barbara Palmer, née Villiers, countess of Castlemaine and later duchess of Cleveland (bap. 1640, d. 1709), was born at his mother's house in ...

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Henriette Anne [formerly Henrietta], Princess, duchess of Orléans (1644–1670), was born at Bedford House, Exeter, on 16 June 1644, the sixth and youngest of the children of Charles I (1600–1649) and Queen Henrietta Maria (1609–1669) to survive infancy and the eighth in all. By her father's command she was baptized into the ...

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Princess Henriette Anne, duchess of Orléans (1644–1670) by Sir Peter Lely, c. 1662 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Henry, Prince, duke of Gloucester (1640–1660), was born on 8 July 1640 at Oatlands, Surrey, and baptized there on 22 July, the fourth, but third surviving, son of Charles I, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1600–1649), and Queen Henrietta Maria (1609–1669). He was declared ...

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Henry Frederick, prince of Wales (1594–1612), was born early on 19 February 1594 at Stirling Castle. He was the eldest child of King James VI of Scotland (1566–1625) and Anne (1574–1619), second daughter of Frederick II, king of Denmark, and Sophia, and older sister of ...

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Henry Frederick, prince of Wales (1594–1612) by Isaac Oliver, c. 1610–12 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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James II and VII (1633–1701), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born in St James's Palace, London, on 14 October 1633, the third surviving child and third (but second surviving) son of Charles I (1600–1649) and his French queen, Henrietta Maria (1609–1669)...

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James II and VII (1633–1701) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1684 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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James VI and I (1566–1625) by Daniel Mytens, 1621 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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James VI and I (1566–1625), king of Scotland, England, and Ireland, was born at Edinburgh Castle on 19 June 1566, the only son of Mary, queen of Scots (1542–1587), and her second husband, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley (1545/6–1567).

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Mary II (1662–1694), queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born on 30 April 1662 in St James's Palace. She was the eldest child of James, duke of York, the future James II (1633–1701), and his first wife, Anne Hyde [see Anne (1637–1671)...