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Adela, countess of Blois (c. 1067–1137), princess, was in all probability the youngest daughter of William I, the Conqueror (1027/8–1087), and his queen, Matilda of Flanders (d. 1083). Adela's birth date is usually calculated as c.1060–62, but panegyric poetry written for her during adulthood suggests that her father was a crowned king at the time of her birth. It is most likely that ...

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Adelida [Adeliza] (d. before 1113), princess, was probably the eldest of the daughters of William I, the Conqueror (1027/8–1087), and Matilda of Flanders (d. 1083). As Adelida she heads most lists of the names of the Conqueror's daughters, including the one in the mortuary roll of ...

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Elisabeth van Houts

Ælfthryth (d. 929), princess, was the youngest of three daughters of King Alfred (d. 899) and Queen Ealhswith, daughter of Æthelred Mucel, ealdorman of the 'Gaini'. She also had two brothers. According to her father's biographer Asser, she was educated with her brother ...

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Æthelstan Ætheling [Athelstan the Atheling] (d. 1014), prince, was the eldest son of Æthelred II (c. 966x8–1016), king of England, and of Æthelred's first wife, Ælfgifu, daughter of Thored (Thorth), who held office as earl of Northumbria from c.975 to c.992. ...

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Alfred Ætheling (d. 1036/7), prince, was the second son of Æthelred II (c. 966x8–1016) and his second consort, Emma of Normandy (d. 1052). He was the brother of Edward the Confessor and they had a sister, Godgifu; he was also half-brother to Harthacnut...

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Anne [née Anne Hyde], duchess of York (1637–1671), first wife of James II, was born on 12 March 1637 at Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor Park, the eldest daughter of Sir Edward Hyde (1609–1674), created earl of Clarendon in 1661, and Frances, daughter of ...

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Anne, duchess of York (1637–1671) by Sir Peter Lely, c. 1660 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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See Howard, Thomas, third duke of Norfolk

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Arthur, prince of Wales (1486–1502) by unknown artist, c. 1500 © Philip Mould, Historical Portraits Ltd

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Arthur, prince of Wales (1486–1502), was born at St Swithun's Priory, Winchester, on 19 September 1486, the eldest son of Henry VII (1457–1509) and his wife, Elizabeth of York (1466–1503), the eldest daughter of Edward IV, whom Henry had married on 18 January 1486, in fulfilment of an oath made at Christmas 1483. ...

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Arthur, duke of Brittany (1187–1203), prince, was the posthumous son of Geoffrey, duke of Brittany (d. 1186), fourth son of Henry II, and Constance, duchess of Brittany (c. 1161–1201). He was born at Nantes on Easter day (29 March) 1187. Despite his grandfather's wish that he should be called ...

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Beauclerk, Charles, first duke of St Albans (1670–1726), army officer, the illegitimate son of Charles II and Nell Gwyn, was born at his mother's house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, on 8 May 1670. It is said that one day when the king was with ...

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Beaufort, Edmund, first duke of Somerset (c. 1406–1455), magnate and soldier, was the younger brother of John Beaufort, duke of Somerset (1404–1444); John and Edmund were the second and third sons of John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset and of Somerset (c. 1371–1410), who was the eldest son of ...

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Beaufort, Edmund, styled third duke of Somerset (c. 1438–1471), magnate, was the second of the three sons of Edmund Beaufort, first duke of Somerset (d. 1455), and his wife, Eleanor, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (1382–1439), and widow of Thomas, Baron Ros of Helmsley...

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Henry Beaufort (1375?–1447) stone effigy © English Heritage. NMR

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Beaufort, Henry [called the Cardinal of England] (1375?–1447), bishop of Winchester and cardinal, was the second of four illegitimate children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403), daughter of the Hainaulter Sir Payn Roelt, who was governess to the duke's children [...

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Beaufort, Henry, second duke of Somerset (1436–1464), magnate, was born early in 1436, the eldest son of Edmund Beaufort, first duke of Somerset (d. 1455), and his wife, Eleanor, daughter of Richard Beauchamp, earl of Warwick (d. 1439), and widow of Thomas, Baron Ros...

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Beaufort [married names Ferrers, Neville], Joan, countess of Westmorland (1379?–1440), magnate, was the youngest of the four children of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and his mistress, Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403) [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster].

The dates of birth of all four children are uncertain, though there may be some significance in the pattern of gifts from ...

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Beaufort, John, marquess of Dorset and marquess of Somerset (c. 1371–1410), soldier and administrator, was the first offspring of the liaison between John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster (1340–1399), and Katherine Swynford (1350?–1403) [see Katherine, duchess of Lancaster]. He became a staunch supporter of ...

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Beaufort, John, duke of Somerset (1404–1444), magnate and soldier, was the second son of John Beaufort, marquess of Dorset and of Somerset (d. 1410), and Margaret Holland, daughter of Thomas Holland, earl of Kent. He succeeded to the earldom of Somerset on the death of his elder brother, ...