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Anne [née Anne Hyde], duchess of York (1637–1671), first wife of James II, was born on 12 March 1637 at Cranbourne Lodge, Windsor Park, the eldest daughter of Sir Edward Hyde (1609–1674), created earl of Clarendon in 1661, and Frances, daughter of ...

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Anne, duchess of York (1637–1671) by Sir Peter Lely, c. 1660 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Beauclerk, Charles, first duke of St Albans (1670–1726), army officer, the illegitimate son of Charles II and Nell Gwyn, was born at his mother's house in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London, on 8 May 1670. It is said that one day when the king was with ...

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Charles I (1600–1649), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born in Dunfermline Castle, Scotland, on 19 November 1600 and baptized at the palace of Holyroodhouse, Edinburgh, on 23 December. He was the third child of James VI of Scotland (subsequently James I...

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Charles II (1630–1685), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland, was born on 29 May 1630 at St James's Palace, London, where he was baptized on 27 June, the second (but first surviving) son of Charles I (1600–1649) and Henrietta Maria (1609–1669), the daughter of ...

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Charles II (1630–1685) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1685 Board of Trustees of the National Museums and Galleries on Merseyside (Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool)

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Charles I (1600–1649) by Sir Anthony Van Dyck, 1635 The Royal Collection © 2004 HM Queen Elizabeth II

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Churchill [married name Godfrey], Arabella (1649–1730), mistress of King James II, was born at Ashe House, Devon, on 28 February 1649, and baptized at St Michael's Church, Musbury, Devon, on 16 March 1649. She was the daughter of Sir Winston Churchill (bap. 1620, d. 1688)...

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Elizabeth I (1533–1603), queen of England and Ireland, was born between 3 and 4 o'clock on the afternoon of Sunday 7 September 1533 at Greenwich Palace, Kent, the only child of Henry VIII (1491–1547), king of England and Ireland, and his second wife, ...

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Gordon Goodwin

Reviser Sean Kelsey

Elizabeth, Princess (1635–1650), second daughter of Charles I (1600–1649) and Henrietta Maria (1609–1669), was born at St James's Palace on 28 December 1635 and baptized there by William Laud on 2 January 1636. She had not reached her first birthday when her grandmother, ...

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Elizabeth, Princess [Elizabeth Stuart] (1596–1662), queen of Bohemia and electress palatine, consort of Frederick V, eldest and only surviving daughter of James VI of Scotland (James I of England) (1566–1625) and his wife, Anne of Denmark (1574–1619), was born at Falkland Palace, Cupar...

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Elizabeth I (1533–1603) by unknown artist, c. 1575 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Fitzcharles, Charles, earl of Plymouth (c. 1657–1680), courtier and army officer, was born, probably in Bruges, in 1657, the illegitimate son of Charles II (1630–1685), and Catherine Pegge (d. 1678). His mother's liaison with the exiled king had come to an end by 1658, and he was brought up by her in the ...

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FitzRoy [formerly Palmer], Charles, second duke of Cleveland and first duke of Southampton (1662–1730), landowner, the first son of Charles II and Barbara Palmer, countess of Castlemaine (bap. 1640, d. 1709), was baptized on 18 June 1662 at St Margaret's, Westminster. Officially his father was ...

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FitzRoy [formerly Palmer], George, duke of Northumberland (1665–1716), courtier and army officer, was born on 28 December 1665 at Merton College, Oxford, the third and youngest son of Charles II and Barbara Palmer, countess of Castlemaine (bap. 1640, d. 1709). For the first few years of his life he was officially the son of his mother's husband, ...

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FitzRoy [formerly Palmer], Henry, first duke of Grafton (1663–1690), naval officer, the second illegitimate son of Charles II (1630–1685) and Barbara Palmer, née Villiers, countess of Castlemaine and later duchess of Cleveland (bap. 1640, d. 1709), was born at his mother's house in ...

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Henriette Anne [formerly Henrietta], Princess, duchess of Orléans (1644–1670), was born at Bedford House, Exeter, on 16 June 1644, the sixth and youngest of the children of Charles I (1600–1649) and Queen Henrietta Maria (1609–1669) to survive infancy and the eighth in all. By her father's command she was baptized into the ...

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Princess Henriette Anne, duchess of Orléans (1644–1670) by Sir Peter Lely, c. 1662 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Henry, Prince, duke of Gloucester (1640–1660), was born on 8 July 1640 at Oatlands, Surrey, and baptized there on 22 July, the fourth, but third surviving, son of Charles I, king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1600–1649), and Queen Henrietta Maria (1609–1669). He was declared ...

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Henry Frederick, prince of Wales (1594–1612), was born early on 19 February 1594 at Stirling Castle. He was the eldest child of King James VI of Scotland (1566–1625) and Anne (1574–1619), second daughter of Frederick II, king of Denmark, and Sophia, and older sister of ...