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Acherley, Roger (bap. 1662?, d. 1740), political writer and lawyer, was the son of John Acherley of Stanwardine, in the parish of Baschurch, Shropshire; he may have been Roger Atcherley, son of John and Mary Atcherley, who was baptized at Baschurch on 23 December 1662. He entered the ...

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Adams, William George Stewart (1874–1966), political scientist and college head, was born on 8 November 1874 at Hamilton, Lanarkshire, the second son and youngest of the four children of John Adams, headmaster of St John's Grammar School, Hamilton, with Aberdonian farming ancestors, and his wife, ...

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Aldred, Guy Alfred (1886–1963), anarchist and political propagandist, was born on 5 November 1886 at 24 Corporation Buildings, Farringdon Road, Clerkenwell, London, the son of Arthur Alfred Aldred (b. 1864/5), a dramatist, and his wife, Ada Caroline Holdsworth (b. 1866/7). His father had deserted his family by 1892, and he was brought up by his mother, a parasol maker; his maternal grandfather, ...

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Amhurst, Nicholas (1697–1742), satirist and political writer, was born on 16 October 1697 at Marden, Kent, the first son of Edward Amhurst (bap. 1665, d. 1713), grazier, and grandson of George Amhurst, rector of Marden. His mother, Martha, née Simmonds (1664–1699), died before he was two years old. He was educated at ...

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Arneway, John (1599/1600–c. 1653), polemicist, was the third surviving son of John Arneway (d. 1622), yeoman of Peplow, Hodnet, Shropshire, and Dorothy (fl. 1599–1621), probably née Hinstocke. He had one elder sister who survived until adulthood. In 1618, aged eighteen, he matriculated at ...

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Ashworth, Edmund (1800–1881), cotton manufacturer and free-trade activist, was born on 17 November 1800 at Birtenshaw, Turton, near Bolton, the fifth of the eleven children of John Ashworth (1772–1855), farmer, land agent, and cotton spinner, and his wife, Isabel Thomasson (1772–1852). Edmund was a younger brother of ...

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J. E. Bailey

Reviser Vivienne Larminie

Askew, Egeon (1575/6–1637), Church of England clergyman, was a native of Lancashire. His family originated from Mulcaster, Cumberland, and lived subsequently at Kirby Ireleth, Lancashire, where Thomas Askew, probably Egeon's younger brother, was instituted vicar in 1606. Having matriculated from Queen's College, Oxford...

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Atwood, William (d. 1712), lawyer and writer on politics, son of John Atwood, of Broomfield, Essex, was admitted as a pensioner at Queens' College, Cambridge, on 23 March 1669. He was admitted at the Inner Temple on 2 December 1669 and at Gray's Inn...

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Bagehot, Walter (1826–1877), political commentator, economist, and journalist, was born on 3 February 1826 at Langport, Somerset, the second son of Thomas Watson Bagehot (1795–1881), banker, and Edith Stuckey (1786–1870), a niece of Samuel Stuckey, founder in 1772 of Stuckey's Bank, which issued its own banknotes and enjoyed considerable prominence and respect in the west country. The first born, ...

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Walter Bagehot (1826–1877) by Norman Hirst, pubd 1891 (after Adolphe Beau, 1864) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Barton, John (1789–1852), political economist and botanist, was born on 11 June 1789 in Southwark, London, the son of John Barton (1755–1789) and his second wife, Elizabeth, née Horne (1760–1833). He was the half-brother of Maria Hack, children's writer, and Bernard Barton, poet. The elder ...

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Baxter, Robert Dudley (1827–1875), political writer and statistician, was born on 3 February 1827 at Doncaster, the son of Robert Baxter, of Stoke Golding, Leicestershire, and of the firm of Baxter & Co., parliamentary lawyers, of Westminster. He was a collateral descendant of ...

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Bethel, Slingsby (bap. 1617, d. 1697), merchant and political economist, was baptized in Alne, in the North Riding of Yorkshire, on 27 February 1617, a younger son of Sir Walter Bethel (d. 1622), gentleman, and Mary Slingsby (1582–1662), daughter of Sir Henry Slingsby...

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Slingsby Bethel (bap. 1617, d. 1697) by William Sherwin, 1680 © Copyright The British Museum

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Eric Arthur Blair [George Orwell] (1903–1950) by Felix H. Man, c. 1947 © Estate of Felix H. Man / National Portrait Gallery, London

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Blair, Eric Arthur [pseud. George Orwell] (1903–1950), political writer and essayist, was born in Motihari, Bengal, India, on 25 June 1903, the only son of Richard Walmesley Blair (1857–1938), a sub-deputy opium agent in the government of Bengal, and his wife, Ida Mabel Limouzin (1875–1943)...

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Brand, John [Fitzjohn] (1743–1808), Church of England clergyman and political writer, was born on 6 November 1743 in Norwich, the son of John Brand, a tanner, and his wife, Hannah. His sisters, Mary and Hannah Brand, ran a well-regarded seminary for French education at ...

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George C. McElroy and Elizabeth R. Lambert

Burke, Richard (1733–1794), political writer and lawyer, was born in Dublin on 18 December 1733, the sixth of the eleven children of Richard Burke (d. 1761), attorney, and his wife, Mary, née Nagle (c.1702–1770), daughter of Garrett Nagle. Both his parents were Irish. Among his elder brothers was the politician and writer ...

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William Burke (1728x3030–1798) by Sir Joshua Reynolds, c. 1778 © reserved

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Burke, William (1728x30–1798), political writer and administrator in India, was the eldest son of John Burke (d. 1764), attorney, of St Marylebone, London, and Plaistow, Essex, and his first wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Thomas Burke, a London vintner. He entered Westminster School...