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Ashton, Mark Christian (1960–1987), communist and gay activist, was born at Woodfield Maternity Home, Oldham, Lancashire, on 19 May 1960, the first of two children and eldest son of Robert Ashton, cotton carder, and his wife, Joan, née Simpson. He grew up and was educated in ...

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Aveling, Edward Bibbens (1849–1898), Marxist campaigner, was born on 29 November 1849 at 6 Nelson Terrace, Stoke Newington, the fifth of eight children of Thomas William Baxter Aveling (1815–1884), Congregationalist minister, and his wife, Mary Ann (d. 1877), daughter of Thomas Goodall...

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Barlas, John Evelyn [pseud. Evelyn Douglas] (1860–1914), poet and anarchist–communist, was born in Rangoon, Burma, on 13 July 1860, the third and only surviving son of John Barlas (1826–1861), a merchant in the East Indies, and his wife, Elizabeth Anne (1835–1878), the daughter of ...

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Bax, Ernest Belfort (1854–1926), Marxist theoretician and activist, was born at his parents' home, 27 Clarendon Square, Leamington Spa, Warwickshire, on 23 July 1854, the last of four children of Daniel Bax (d. 1882), a manufacturer, and his wife, Eleanor, daughter of ...

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Bell, Thomas Hargrave [Tom] (1882–1944), political organizer, was born at 779 Great Eastern Road, Parkhead, Glasgow, on 20 September 1882, one of six children of William Bell (b. 1849/50), who had been apprenticed as a stonemason in ...

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Chattopadhyaya, Virendranath [Chatto] (1880–1937), Indian nationalist and communist, was born in Hyderabad in 1880, the eldest son and second child of Aghornath Chattopadhyaya (1851–1915), an educator and scholar, and his wife, Baradasundari, otherwise Varada Devi, a musician and dancer, who raised their extraordinary family in ...

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Cliff, Tony [formerly Ygael Amnon Gluckstein] (1917–2000), Trotskyist leader, was born on 20 May 1917 at Zikhron Yaakov in Turkish Palestine, the youngest of four children of Akiva Gluckstein, a prosperous building contractor, and his wife, Esther, who had emigrated from Russian ...

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Cohen, Rose (1894–1937), communist, was born in Spitalfields, London, on 20 May 1894, the third of five children of Morris Cohen, a Jewish tailor of Polish origin, and his wife, Ada. Morris Cohen had formerly worked as a weaver and on communist questionnaires; ...

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Crawfurd [née Jack; other married name Anderson], Helen (1877–1954), suffragette and communist, was born at 175 Cumberland Street, Glasgow, on 9 November 1877, the fourth of seven children of William Jack, a prosperous master baker, and his wife, Helen Kyle. Her parents had been married in ...

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Duranty, Walter (1884–1957), journalist, was born at 10 Falkner Square, Liverpool, on 25 May 1884, the son of William Steel Duranty (1847–1933), a merchant involved in trade with the West Indies, and his wife, Emmeline, née Hutchins (1848–1916). His paternal grandfather, ...

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Dutt, (Rajani) Palme (1896–1974), political leader, was born at Cambridge on 19 June 1896, the younger son (there was also a daughter) of Upendra Krishna Dutt, a Bengali, who had studied medicine in England and established a practice in Cambridge. Dutt's Swedish mother, ...

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(Rajani) Palme Dutt (1896–1974) by Howard Coster, 1943 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Eccarius, John George (1818–1889), tailor and political activist, was born Johann Georg Eccarius in Friedrichroda in the duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (in current-day Thuringia in Germany) on 23 August 1818, the fourth son of the master tailor Johann Heinrich Eccarius (1776–1844) and his wife, ...

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Ecclestone, Alan (1904–1992), Church of England clergyman and communist activist, was born on 3 June 1904 at 233 Princes Road, Stoke-on-Trent, the second of the two children of George Henry Ecclestone (1867–1942), a pottery designer, and his wife, Emily Florence, née Heath (1872–1945)...

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Alan Ecclestone (1904–1992) by unknown photographer, c. 1960 private collection

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Engels, Friedrich [Frederick] (1820–1895), businessman and revolutionary leader, was born on 28 November 1820 in Barmen, Westphalia, the son of Friedrich Engels (1796–1860), a textile manufacturer, and Elizabeth, née van Haar (1797–1873), the daughter of a schoolmaster of Dutch origin. Frederick (as he came to be known in ...

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Fischer, Abram [Bram] (1908–1975), communist revolutionary and barrister in South Africa, was born at Bloemfontein on 23 April 1908, the oldest of four sons and one daughter of Percy Ulrich Fischer (1878–1957), a Cambridge-educated barrister who was from 1939 to 1948 judge president of the ...

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Fox, Ralph Winston (1900–1936), author and communist, was born at 20 First Avenue, Halifax, Yorkshire, on 30 March 1900, the second of six children of Samuel Fox (b. 1870), a commercial traveller and later director of the boilermakers Hartley & Sugden...

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Fraser [née Jupp], Rhoda Mary Napier [pseud. Crae Ritchie] (1918–1970), communist and peace campaigner, was born on 23 February 1918 in Edinburgh, the second of three children of George Jupp, clerk to the board of works, and his wife, Ethel Ritchie...

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See Gaster, Moses