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Bennett, Louise [Louie] (1870–1956), suffragist, trade unionist, and pacifist, was born in Temple Road, Temple Hill, near Dublin, the eldest of five daughters and five sons of an auctioneer and antiques valuer called Bennett and his wife, Susan Boulger, daughter of an army...

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Biggs, John (1801–1871), hosier and political reformer, was born at Leicester, first of the seven children of John Biggs (1774–1827), hosier, and his wife, Elizabeth, née Heggs (1780–1862), of Arnesby, Leicestershire. By the time his father died in 1827 the firm of John Biggs & Sons...

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See Biggs, John

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Chew, Ada Nield (1870–1945), labour organizer and suffragist, was born at Hollins, Butt Lane, Audley, Staffordshire, on 28 January 1870, the second child in a family of thirteen of William Nield, brick maker, and his wife, Jane, née Hammond. Ada was taken from school at the age of eleven to help look after the family, especially her younger sister ...

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Cook [née Graves], Cecily Mary (1889/90–1962), trade unionist and suffrage campaigner, daughter of Alfred Graves, was probably born in London, but little else is known about her early life. She married Herbert G. N. Cook, a secretary, on 6 November 1909. The couple's only child, a son, died at about the age of nineteen. Following ...

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Dickenson [née Welsh], Sarah (1868–1954), trade unionist and suffragist, was born on 28 March 1868 in Borsall Road, Hulme, Manchester, the second of five children of Scot John Welsh, enameller and coach-painter, and his wife, Jane Ferguson. From 1879, when she was eleven years old, until 1895, ...

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Doherty, John (1797/8–1854), trade unionist and political radical, was born in Ireland but his exact date of birth is not certain. He came from a labouring family and he himself began work in the local cotton industry at the age of ten. In 1816 he joined the increasing flow of Irish migrants to ...

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Gast, John (c. 1772–1837), trade unionist and radical, was born in Bristol, the son of Robert Gast, a seller of milk. He had at least two brothers, and at some time married Elizabeth, who outlived him, but nothing else is known of his family. Soon after finishing his apprenticeship he left ...

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Helliker [Hilliker], Thomas [called the Trowbridge Martyr] (1783–1803), woollen-cloth worker and machine breaker, was the sixth child of Thomas Hilliker (1745–1819) and Elizabeth Ebsworth (1749–1831); he was born at Horningsham, Wiltshire, and baptized there on 17 May 1783. Like his elder brothers ...

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Sir James Hope of Hopetoun, appointed Lord Hopetoun under the protectorate (1614–1661) by unknown artist in the collection of the Hopetoun House Preservation Trust; photograph courtesy the Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Hope, Sir James, of Hopetoun, appointed Lord Hopetoun under the protectorate (1614–1661), industrialist and political radical, was born on 4 July 1614, the youngest of six sons (of whom four survived to adulthood) of Sir Thomas Hope of Craighall, lord advocate (1573–1646), and ...

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Kendall, George (1808/9–1886), Chartist and trade unionist, was baptized in the village of Hoton on the Hill near Loughborough on 26 July 1811, the son of George and Sarah Kendall. Starting work in the local hosiery industry at the age of five years, he moved to ...

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Lloyd, Gamaliel (1744–1817), merchant and political reformer, was born on 26 May 1744 at Hulme Hall near Manchester, the second son of four children of George Lloyd (bap. 1708, d. 1783), merchant and manufacturer, and his second wife, Susannah Horton (bap...

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McCallum [married name Richardson], Janet Hutchison [Jenny] (1881–1946), trade unionist and suffragette, was born on 21 July 1881 at Hospital Hill, Dunfermline, the eldest of the thirteen children of John McCallum (1857–c.1905), stonemason, and his wife, Janet (1860–1933). Jenny McCallum's...

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Mealmaker, George (1768–1808), weaver and radical, was born on 10 February 1768, the son of John Mealmaker, weaver, of the Seagate, Dundee, and Alison Auchinleck. Of Mealmaker's early life and education there is no direct information. Similarly, it is possible only to speculate about the sources of his political radicalism. A description of him from 1793 as '...

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Muntz, George Frederick (1794–1857), political reformer and industrialist, eldest son of Philip Frederick Muntz (d. 1811) and his wife, Catherine, née Purden, was born in Great Charles Street, Birmingham, on 26 November 1794. His ancestors were Poles, whom persecution drove to France...

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Charlotte Fell-Smith

revised by J.-M. Alter

Rickman, Thomas Clio (1761–1834), bookseller and reformer, was born on 27 July 1761 at The Cliffe, Lewes, the fourth and youngest son of John Rickman (1715–1789), brewer and owner of the Bear Inn at the Cliffe, and his wife, Elizabeth, née Peters (1725–1795)...

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Rushton, Benjamin (1785–1853), hand-loom weaver and radical agitator, was born at Dewsbury in Yorkshire, but later moved to Halifax, where he found employment as a fancy-worsted weaver, residing at Friendly Fold in the village of Ovenden. He married Mary Helliwell (b. 1786)...

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Silcock [married name Fairhurst], Helen (b. 1865), trade unionist and suffragist, was born at Usworth, co. Durham, on 25 February 1865, the fourth daughter in the family of at least five daughters and three sons of John Silcock (1829/30–1903), coalminer and strong trade unionist, and his wife, ...

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Spence, Thomas (1750–1814), radical and bookseller, was born on the Quayside of Newcastle upon Tyne on 21 June 1750. His father, Jeremiah Spence, had arrived in Newcastle from Aberdeen about 1739, while his mother, Margaret Flet, his father's second wife, came from the ...