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James Anderson (1738–1809) by Luigi Schiavonetti (after John Smart, 1800) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Anderson, James (1738–1809), surgeon and horticulturist, was born on 17 January 1738 at Long Hermiston near Edinburgh, the son of Andrew Anderson, a local doctor. He attended the village school at Ratho and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh. He was a surgeon on an ...

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Bell, Benjamin (1749–1806), surgeon and farmer, eldest son of the fifteen children of George Bell (1722–1813), farmer, and Anne, née Corrie, of Speddoch, was born at Dumfries in April 1749. He was descended from landed proprietors of long standing in Dumfriesshire. Subsequently the family moved to ...

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Betts, Annie Dorothy (1884–1961), apiculturist and expert on bee diseases, was born on 22 November 1884 at Claverley, Adelaide Road, Surbiton, Surrey, the daughter of Edward Peto Betts (1844–1918), civil engineer and financier, and his wife, Frances Ashenhurst Maclean (1853–1934). She was from a distinguished family of railway constructors that included her grandfather ...

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Ernest Clarke

revised by Sherwin A. Hall

Brown, Sir George Thomas (1827–1906), veterinary surgeon, born in London on 30 December 1827, was the elder son of Thomas Brown of Notting Hill Terrace, London, and his wife, Grace Bryant. Colonel Sir William James Brown KCB (1832–1918), was his younger brother. After being educated privately ...

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Child, Robert (1613–1654), physician and agriculturist, was born in Northfleet, Kent, the son of John Child. His brother Major John Child was commander of a Kentish regiment, and was one of the commissioned officers who took part in the Kentish insurrection of 1648. ...

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Eliot, Jared (1685–1763), Congregationalist minister in America, physician, and writer on agriculture, was born on 7 November 1685 in Guilford, Connecticut, the first of four children of Joseph Eliot (1638–1694), Congregational minister, and Mary Wyllys. Eliot entered Harvard College in 1699 but studied there only a year. When ...

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Hammond, Sir John (1889–1964), physiologist and agricultural scientist, was born on 23 February 1889, at Briston, Norfolk, the eldest child of Burrell Hammond, a tenant farmer, and Janette Louisa Aldis, the daughter of a schoolmaster in East Dereham. He was educated at Gresham's School, Holt...

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Jesty, Benjamin (bap. 1736, d. 1816), farmer and vaccinator, was born in Yetminster, Dorset, and baptized there on 19 August 1736, the youngest of at least four sons of Robert Jesty, butcher. Little else is known of his early life. In March 1770 he married ...

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Kemp [Kempe], William (1554/5–1628), landowner and sufferer from melancholia, was the eldest son of Robert Kemp of Spain's Hall, Finchingfield, Essex, and his wife, Elizabeth Heigham. He had at least two younger brothers and two sisters. Under a contract dated 10 October 1588 he married ...

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Kennon, Sidney (d. 1754), midwife and collector, whose family background and education are obscure, distinguished herself initially in her services to the royal family, especially to Queen Caroline and Augusta, princess of Wales. The infant George III was delivered by her. Kennon was highly respected for her professional acumen and, at the time of her death, could command ...

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See Lawrence [née Senior], Louisa

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John Mackenzie (1803–1886) by J. Collier, 1867 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Mackenzie, John (1803–1886), physician and landowner, was born in Scotland on 23 November 1803, the fourth of the five sons of Sir Hector Mackenzie of Gairloch, fourth baronet (1758–1826), and his second wife, Christian, née Henderson. He was educated at Edinburgh University, graduating as a physician (DM) in 1824, and as a surgeon in 1825; he became a lifelong friend of ...

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Maddock, James (1718–1786), nurseryman and florist, was born on 10 August 1718, at Eaton, Cheshire, the son of Mordecai and Sarah Maddock, active members of the Religious Society of Friends. Maddock made his reputation as a nurseryman first in Lancashire, at Warrington, but after a period working in ...

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Mantell, Joshua (1795–1865), surgeon and horticulturist, was born on 3 November 1795 at St Mary's Lane, Lewes, the fourth son of Thomas Mantell (1750–1807), shoemaker, and his wife, Sarah Austen (1755–1828). Though hunchbacked and desultory, Mantell displayed an aptitude for science and eventually gave several public lectures on chemical topics to local audiences. In 1821 he managed a stationer's shop in ...

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Menzies, Archibald (1754–1842), naval surgeon and botanical collector, was born at the house of Styx or Stix, near Aberfeldy, Perthshire, on 15 March 1754, the son of James and Ann Menzies. He had three brothers and four sisters, and was educated at the parish school at ...

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Redfern, William (1774/5?–1833), convict surgeon and pastoralist in Australia, had relatives in Londonderry, Wiltshire, and possibly Canada, but details are unknown. He acquired the diploma of the London Company of Surgeons in January 1797 and immediately joined HMS Standard as surgeon's first mate. Later that year he provided medical care and probably moral support to the mutineers at the ...

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William L. Weipers

revised by Linda Warden

Ritchie, Sir John Neish (1904–1977), veterinary surgeon, was born on 19 January 1904 in Turriff, Aberdeenshire, the youngest of three sons in a family of five children of John Neish Ritchie, a general merchant of Schoolhill, Turriff, and his wife, Annie Watson, who was for some time a governess in ...

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Sloane, Sir Hans, baronet (1660–1753), physician and collector, was born at Killyleagh, co. Down, on 16 April 1660, the seventh son of Alexander Sloane (d. 1666). His father, a protestant, was by profession agent for James Hamilton, second Viscount Claneboye and later earl of Clanbrassill...