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(John) Thomas Baines (1820–1875) by unknown photographer, 1860s The Royal Geographical Society, London

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Baines, (John) Thomas (1820–1875), artist and explorer, was born on 27 November 1820 at King's Lynn, Norfolk, the second son and one of three surviving children of Mary Ann Watson and John Thomas Baines, a master mariner. His father and maternal grandfather were amateur artists, his brother ...

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Sir Samuel White Baker (1821–1893) by Maull & Co., 1860s © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Baker, Sir Samuel White (1821–1893), traveller and explorer in Africa, was born on 8 June 1821 in London, the second of the eight children of Samuel Baker (d. 1862) of Lypiatt Park, Gloucestershire, and his first wife, Mary, daughter of Thomas Dobson...

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Beechey, Henry William (1788/9–1862), painter and explorer, was born probably at 37 Hill Street, Berkeley Square, London, the eldest son of the portrait painter Sir William Beechey (1753–1839) and his first wife. Nothing is known of his education. In August 1815 he became secretary to ...

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Howard Temperley

revised by Elizabeth Baigent

Beecroft, John (1790–1854), west African explorer and consul, was born near Whitby. Little is known about his early years beyond the fact that in 1805, while serving aboard a coasting vessel, he was captured by a French privateer and held prisoner until the peace of 1814. He subsequently joined the ...

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William John Burchell (1781–1863) by Mary Dawson Turner (after John Sell Cotman, 1816) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Burchell, William John (1781–1863), explorer and naturalist, was born in Fulham on 23 July 1781, one of three children and the only son of Matthew Burchell (d. 1828), botanist and the owner of the Fulham nursery. He was educated at Raleigh House Academy, Mitcham, Surrey...

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Frederick Russell Burnham (1861–1947) by Elliott & Fry, 1901 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Burnham, Frederick Russell (1861–1947), scout and prospector, was born on 11 May 1861 in Tivoli, Minnesota, the elder son of Edwin Otway Burnham (d. 1873), Congregational minister and missionary, and his wife, Rebecca, née Russell, both of English descent. The family moved to ...

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See Burns, (James) Dawson

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Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821–1890) by Frederic Leighton, Baron Leighton, c. 1872–5 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Burton, Sir Richard Francis (1821–1890), explorer and author, was the son of Colonel Joseph Netterville Burton and Martha Beckwith, daughter and coheir of Richard Baker of Barham House, Hertfordshire. The eldest of three children, he was born on 19 March 1821 at Torquay...

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Verney Lovett Cameron (1844–1894) by Maull & Fox, c. 1870 The Royal Geographical Society, London

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Cameron, Verney Lovett (1844–1894), explorer in Africa, was born on 1 July 1844 at Radipole, Weymouth, Dorset, one of eight children—and the third of five sons—of the Revd Jonathan Henry Lovett Cameron (1807–1888) MA of Trinity College, Cambridge, and vicar of Radipole and his wife, ...

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Colquhoun, Archibald Ross (1848–1914), explorer, colonial administrator, and author, was born at sea off the Cape of Good Hope in March 1848, the fifth of six children of Dr Archibald Colquhoun (c.1804–1890) of Edinburgh, an employee of the East India Company...

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Dixon Denham (1786–1828) by Thomas Phillips, 1826 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Denham, Dixon (1786–1828), explorer in Africa, born in London on 1 January 1786, was the son of James Denham and his wife, Eleanor, née Symonds. He was educated from 1793 at Merchant Taylors' School. After being briefly articled to a London solicitor, he joined the ...

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Charles Montagu Doughty (1843–1926) by Eric Kennington, 1921 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Doughty, Charles Montagu (1843–1926), explorer, travel writer, and poet, was born on 19 August 1843 at Theberton Hall, Leiston, Suffolk, the younger of two sons of the Revd Charles Montagu Doughty (1798–1850), landowner, and his wife, Frederica (d. 1843), daughter of the ...