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Antonius, George Habib (1891–1942), colonial official, historian, and political activist, was born on 19 October 1891 in Dair al-Qamar, a small town in the Lebanese mountains, the third of five sons of Habib Antonius (d. 1931), a merchant, and his wife, Émilie Hobeika (...

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Arnot, Robert Page [Robin] (1890–1986), political activist and historian, was born at 8 South Street, Greenock, Renfrewshire, on 15 December 1890, the son of John Arnot, a newspaper sub-editor who had begun work as a child in an iron foundry but became editor of the ...

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Brown, Michael Barratt (1918–2015), economist, educationist, and political activist, was born on 15 March 1918 at Holland House, Woodbrooke, Selly Oak, Birmingham, the eldest of four children of Alfred Barratt Brown (1887–1947), educationist, and his wife (Doris) Eileen, née Cockshott (...

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Mary Ann Camberton Cary (1823–1893) by unknown photographer, c. 1845–55 National Archives of Canada / C-029977

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Cary [née Shadd], Mary Ann Camberton (1823–1893), schoolmistress, newspaper editor, and political activist, was born on 9 October 1823 in Wilmington, Delaware, eldest of thirteen children of Abraham Doras Shadd (1801–1882), a shoemaker, and his wife, Harriet Parnell (1806–1880). Free African Americans in a slave state, prominent in the anti-slavery and negro convention movements, her family moved to ...

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Craigen, Jessie Hannah (1834/5–1899), public speaker, was the daughter of a Scottish sea captain and an Italian actress, names unknown. Though she once remarked that her childhood was spent in London, she also variously claimed roots in Scotland and the north of England...

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Louise Hume Creighton (1850–1936) by Glyn Philpot, 1918 © Estate of Glyn Philpot

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Creighton [née von Glehn], Louise Hume (1850–1936), social activist and writer of popular history and biography, was born on 7 July 1850 at Peak Hill Lodge, Sydenham, on the outskirts of London, tenth child of Robert William von Glehn (1801–1885) and Agnes Duncan (...

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Erskine, Stuart Richard [known as Ruaraidh Erskine of Mar] (1869–1960), political activist and Gaelic entrepreneur, was born at 1 Portland Place, Brighton, on 15 January 1869, second of the three sons of William Macnaghten Erskine, fifth Baron Erskine (1841–1913), army officer, and his wife, ...

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(James Clerk) Maxwell Garnett (1880–1958) by Karl Pollak, c. 1948 © reserved; collection National Portrait Gallery, London

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J. T. Gilbert

revised by Margaret Ó hÓgartaigh

Hay, Edward (c. 1761–1826), historian and political activist, was born at Ballinkeele, co. Wexford, Ireland, the eldest son of Harvey Hay (d. 1796), landowner, and Catherine Fergus, who were Roman Catholics. He studied in France and Germany before returning to Ireland, where he took part in the public movements for effecting a relaxation of the penal laws against Catholics. In 1791 he was elected by the ...

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Jones, John Pike (1791–1857), political activist and antiquary, eldest son of John Jones, a mercer at Chudleigh, Devon, and his wife, Mary Pike, was born at Chudleigh on 25 February 1791. On 4 July 1809 he was admitted as sizar at Pembroke College, Cambridge...

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Krishnavarma, Shyamji (1857–1930), Sanskrit scholar and Indian nationalist, was born on 30 October 1857 in the town of Mandvi in the Kutch district of western Gujarat, the son of a cotton press labourer, Karsan Nakhua, and his wife, Gomatibai, of the Bhanushali community. After his mother's death in 1868 he was brought up by his grandmother, and was educated to high school level in ...

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(George) Gilbert Aimé Murray (1866–1957) by Elliott & Fry © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Murray, (George) Gilbert Aimé (1866–1957), classical scholar and internationalist, was born in Sydney, Australia, on 2 January 1866, the second son of Sir Terence Aubrey Murray (1810–1873) and his second wife, Agnes Ann, née Edwards (c.1835–1891). Murray's father, a prosperous stock farmer, had been since 1862 president of the legislative council of ...

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Oswald, Eugene (1826–1912), teacher and writer, was born in Heidelberg on 16 October 1826, the youngest of the five children of Carl August Oswald, a publisher in Heidelberg, and his wife, Christiana Augusta Brédé, who was of Huguenot descent. Though of a scholarly bent, ...

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Sir George Robert Parkin (1846–1922) by Walter Stoneman, 1920 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Parkin, Sir George Robert (1846–1922), educationist and imperialist, was born on 8 February 1846 on a farm near Salisbury, New Brunswick, Canada, the youngest of the thirteen children of John Parkin, a Yorkshire farmer who emigrated in 1817, and his wife, Elizabeth McLean...

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Margaret Mary Pearse (1878–1968) by Thomas D. Mcavoy, 1952 Getty Images – Thomas D. Mcavoy

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Pearse, Margaret Mary (1878–1968), teacher and politician, was born at 27 Great Brunswick Street (later Pearse Street), Dublin, on 4 August 1878, the eldest child of the two daughters and two sons of James Pearse (1839–1900), stone carver and sometime pamphleteer, and his second wife, ...