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Anders, Władysław (1892–1970), army officer and politician, was born on 11 August 1892 in Błonie, in the county of Kutno, in Russian Poland. The eldest of four sons of Catholic parents, he attended secondary school in Warsaw, and moved with the family to ...

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Berezovsky, Boris Abramovich (1946–2013), entrepreneur and politician, was born in Moscow on 23 January 1946, the son of Abram Markovich Berezovsky (1911–1979), a Jewish civil engineer, and his wife, Anna Aleksandrovna, née Gelman (1923–2013), a nurse. His life started in academic obscurity. After flunking his mathematics examinations for ...

Article

S. E. Fryer

revised by Matthew Lee

Blind, Karl (1826–1907), political refugee and author, was born of middle-class parents in Mannheim, in the grand duchy of Baden, Germany, on 4 September 1826. He was educated at the Lyceum, Mannheim, and then at Karlsruhe, where he won gold and silver medals; he proceeded with a scholarship to ...

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D'Ivernois, Sir Francis (1757–1842), political exile and politician in Geneva, was born François d'Ivernois at Geneva on 9 April 1757, the fifth of eight children of François-Henri d'Ivernois (1722–1778), merchant, and his wife, Marianne Dehors (1727–1796). During the 1760s his father became a leading figure in the ...

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Duroveray, Jacques-Antoine (1747–1814), political exile and politician in Geneva, was born at Geneva into a poor labouring family. Little is known about Duroveray's early life, aside from his education in law at the Collège de Genève and his qualification as an advocate in 1771. In spite of his youth he was named from 1766 among the leaders of the ...

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(Adeline) Paulina Irby (1831–1911) by unknown photographer © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Irby, (Adeline) Paulina (1831–1911), traveller and Balkan sympathizer, was the youngest daughter of Rear-Admiral the Hon. Frederick Paul Irby (1779–1844) of Long Stratton, Norfolk, and his second wife, Frances Wright (d. 1852), daughter of Ichabod Wright of Mapperley Hall, Nottinghamshire; she was the granddaughter of the ...

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Mario, Jessie Jane Meriton White (1832–1906), advocate of Italian unity, was born on 9 May 1832, probably at 15 Chapel Row, Forton, Gosport, Hampshire, daughter of Thomas White (c.1800–1863) and his second wife, Jane Teage, née Meriton (1805–1834). Her mother, related to a liberal ...

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McAdam, John (1806–1883), reformer and campaigner for Italian unity, was born on 5 August 1806 at Port Dundas, Glasgow, the second son of James (or Thomas) McAdam (d. c.1821), carter, and his wife, Helen Baxter, both originally from rural Stirlingshire. His education, partly in an overcrowded school in ...

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See Meetkerke, Edward