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Carleill, Christopher (1551?–1593), soldier and naval commander, was the second son, but heir, of Alexander Carleill (d. 1561), merchant, of London, and his wife, Anne (d. 1565), daughter of Sir George Barne, lord mayor of London, and his wife, Alice...

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Champernowne, Sir Arthur (b. in or before 1524, d. 1578), soldier and naval commander, was the second son of Sir Philip Champernowne (d. 1545), landowner of Modbury, Devon, and his wife, Katherine, daughter of Sir Edmund Carew of Mohun's Ottery, Devon, and his wife, ...

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Crosse, Sir Robert (c. 1547–1611), naval commander, was born at Charlinch, near Bridgwater, Somerset, the second of seven sons of William Crosse, gentleman, and Elizabeth, his wife, who also bore five surviving daughters. His earliest known employment was as a soldier with the regency army during the siege of ...

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Frobisher, Sir Martin (1535?–1594), privateer, explorer, and naval commander, was descended from John Frobisher (b. c.1260), a Scot settled in lands near Chirk in Denbighshire granted in recognition of his services to Edward I during the Welsh wars. In the mid-fourteenth century the family crossed the ...

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Sir Martin Frobisher (1535?–1594) by Cornelius Ketel, 1577 © Bodleian Library, University of Oxford

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Sir Richard Grenville (1542–1591) by unknown artist, 17th cent. [original, 1571] © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Grenville, Sir Richard (1542–1591), naval commander, was born in May or June 1542, the son of a sea captain, Roger Grenville (d. 1545) of Stowe, Cornwall, and Thomasine, daughter of Thomas Cole.

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Sir John Hawkins (1532–1595) attrib. Federico Zuccaro, 1591 Plymouth City Art Gallery; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Hawkins, Sir John (1532–1595), merchant and naval commander, was born in Plymouth, the second son of William Hawkins (b. before 1490, d. 1554/5), merchant, sea captain, and shipowner, and his wife, Joan, only child of Roger Trelawny of Brightor, Cornwall.

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Hezlet, Sir Arthur Richard (1914–2007), naval officer and submariner, was born on 7 April 1914 in Pretoria, South Africa, of Ulster protestant descent, the only son (there were two daughters) of Major, later Major-General, Robert Knox Hezlet (1879–1963), army officer, and his wife, ...

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Holstocke [Holstock], William (d. 1589), naval commander and administrator, sailed as page to Richard Gonson in 1534 on a voyage to Candia (Crete) and Chios in the ship Matthew Gonson. In the following year he made another voyage to the islands as purser of the same ship. His association with the ...

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Charles Howard, second Baron Howard of Effingham and first earl of Nottingham (1536–1624) by Daniel Mytens, c. 1620 © National Maritime Museum, London, Greenwich Hospital Collection

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Howard, Charles, second Baron Howard of Effingham and first earl of Nottingham (1536–1624), naval commander, was the eldest son of William Howard, first Baron Howard of Effingham (c. 1510–1573), and his second wife, Margaret (d. 1581), daughter of Sir Thomas Gamage. His early years are obscure. He spent some time in the household of his uncle ...

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William Howard, first Baron Howard of Effingham (c. 1510–1573) after Hans Eworth?, 1558 unknown collection / Christie's; photograph National Portrait Gallery, London

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Howard, William, first Baron Howard of Effingham (c. 1510–1573), naval commander, was the fourth son of Thomas Howard, second duke of Norfolk (1443–1524), and his second wife, Agnes Tilney (d. 1545). Educated at Trinity Hall, Cambridge, Lord William was brought to court immediately thereafter, where he appears to have made an early and favourable impression. In 1531 ...

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Palmer, Sir Henry (c. 1550–1611), naval commander, first appears in the queen's service at sea off the coast of Flanders in 1576, which indicates that he was probably born about 1550. He was literate, but there are few other indications of his upbringing; he may, like ...

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Preston, Sir Amyas (d. 1609), naval commander, was a member of the Preston family of Cricket, Somerset. No reference to his birth or education has been found and the earliest reference to him is his marriage on 4 June 1581 to Julian Burye (...

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Woodhouse, Sir William (b. in or before 1517, d. 1564), naval commander and administrator, was the second son of John Woodhouse of Waxham in Norfolk and Alice, the daughter of William Croft of Thorpe Market. Sir Thomas Woodhouse was his elder brother. As ...