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Arthur (supp. fl. in or before 6th cent.), legendary warrior and supposed king of Britain, has an attested career that is entirely posthumous. From obscure beginnings in British legend, he became internationally known in the twelfth century, particularly through the success of Geoffrey of Monmouth's...

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Brennan, Michael [Mícheál] (1896–1986), Irish revolutionary and general, was born on 2 February 1896 at Gortgarraun, near Meelick, co. Clare, the youngest of three rebel sons of Patrick Brennan, a tenant farmer (1865–1901), and Mary (1862/3–1939), daughter of Michael Clancy from Rathurd, co. Limerick...

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Calveley, Sir Hugh (d. 1394), military commander, was the son of David Calveley of Lea in Cheshire and his first wife, Joan.

Calveley served his military apprenticeship in the war of succession in Brittany (1341–64), in which the English supported the partisans of ...

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Clare, Richard fitz Gilbert de [called Strongbow], second earl of Pembroke [earl of Striguil] (c. 1130–1176), warrior, was the son of Gilbert fitz Gilbert (d. 6 Jan? 1148), whom King Stephen created earl of Pembroke in 1138 and to whom the sobriquet ...

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Courcy [Courci], John de (d. 1219?), conqueror of Ulster, styled by contemporaries prince of Ulster, is of uncertain parentage. He was without doubt a member of the well-known family who took their name from Courcy-sur-Dives in Calvados and who were lords of Stoke Courcy (Stogursey)...

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T. F. Tout

revised by R. R. Davies

Dafydd [David] Gam (d. 1415), warrior, was descended lineally from the native Welsh rulers of Brycheiniog; his own pedigree, which can be documentarily established from the mid-thirteenth century, runs as follows: Dafydd Gam ap Llywelyn ap Hywel Fychan ap Hywel ab Einion Sais...

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Ealdred (d. 933?), leader of the Northumbrians, was the son of Eadulf and lord of Bamburgh. He was the most important Anglo-Saxon in Northumbria during the early tenth century, a time of renewed viking activity, and the last representative of an independent Anglo-Saxon royal family in the north. His father, ...

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Edward [Edward of Woodstock; known as the Black Prince], prince of Wales and of Aquitaine (1330–1376), heir to the English throne and military commander, was the eldest son of Edward III (1312–1377) and Philippa of Hainault (1310x15?–1369).

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Edward, prince of Wales and of Aquitaine (1330–1376) tomb effigy by kind permission of the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury; photographer: Mrs Mary Tucker

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Sir John Hawkwood (d. 1394) by Paolo Uccello, 1436 photograph: AKG London

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Hawkwood, Sir John (d. 1394), military commander, was the second son of Gilbert Hawkwood, a tanner and minor landowner at Sible Hedingham, Essex, where the family had held land since the beginning of the thirteenth century. The date of his birth is not recorded, but he was evidently in his early manhood by the time of his father's death in 1340, since, along with his elder brother, also called ...

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Popham, Sir John (c. 1395–1463), military commander and diplomat, was the son of Sir John Popham (d. 1418), a younger son of the Hampshire family of Popham, which lies between Basingstoke and Winchester. His mother was Matilda, probably the daughter of Oliver Zouche...

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Willoughby, Robert, sixth Baron Willoughby (1385–1452), military commander, was the son of William Willoughby, fifth Baron Willoughby [see under Willoughby family (per. c. 1300-1523)], and Lucy, daughter of Lord Strange, and succeeded his father in December 1409. The family had extensive lands in ...