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Louis Botha (1862–1919) by Sir James Guthrie, c. 1919–21 Scottish National Portrait Gallery

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Botha, Louis (1862–1919), prime minister of the Union of South Africa and army officer, was born on 27 September 1862 at Honigfontein, near Greytown, Natal, the ninth child of Louis Botha (1827–1883), farmer, and his wife, Salomina Adriana Van Rooyen, both of whom had gone on the great trek as children. Until ...

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Caillaud, John (1726–1812), army officer in the East India Company, was born in Dublin on 5 February 1726 and baptized in the French (Huguenot) church in Peter Street on 16 February, the younger son and youngest of the three children of Ruben Caillaud (...

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Duras, Louis, second earl of Feversham (1641–1709), soldier and diplomat, was born at Duras, Guyenne, France, the sixth and youngest son of Guy Aldonce de Durfort, marquis de Duras, and his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Henri de la Tour d'Auvergne, duc de Bouillon...

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Germain, Sir John, first baronet (1650–1718), army officer and politician, was born in May 1650, probably at The Hague, the son of John Germain and his wife, Mary Moll. His father was a private officer in the Dutch army and his mother reputedly a mistress of ...

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See Ginckel, Godard van Reede-, first earl of Athlone

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Godard van Reede- Ginckel, first earl of Athlone (1644–1703) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 1692 National Gallery of Ireland

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Ginckel, Godard van Reede-, first earl of Athlone (1644–1703), army officer, was born on 4 June 1644 at Amerongen Castle, Utrecht, the Netherlands, the only son of Godard Adriaan, first Baron van Reede (1621–1691), head of an old feudal family and a leading Dutch diplomat, and his wife, ...

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Arnold Joost van Keppel, first earl of Albemarle (1669/7070–1718) by Sir Godfrey Kneller, c. 1700 © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Keppel, Arnold Joost van, first earl of Albemarle (1669/70–1718), courtier and army officer, was born in 1669 or 1670, probably in Gelderland, United Provinces, and was probably baptized on 30 January 1670 at Zutphen in Gelderland, the son of Osewalt van Keppel, lord of ...

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See Ligonier, John [formerly Jean-Louis de Ligonier], Earl Ligonier

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Ligonier, John [formerly Jean-Louis de Ligonier], Earl Ligonier (1680–1770), army officer, was born on 17 October 1680 at Castres, near Toulouse, France, the son of Louis de Ligonier, sieur de Montcuquet (1640–1693), and his wife, Louise du Poncet (b. 1652). The ...

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John Ligonier, Earl Ligonier (1680–1770) by Sir Joshua Reynolds, 1760 Fort Ligonier, Pennsylvania, USA

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Mascarene, (Jean-)Paul (1685–1760), army officer and colonial administrator, was born Jean-Paul Mascarene in October or November 1685 in Languedoc, France, the only child of Jean Mascarene and his wife, Margaret de Salavy. Shortly after the birth of his son, Jean Mascarene was imprisoned and then expelled from ...

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Henri de Massue de Ruvigny, earl of Galway, and marquess of Ruvigny in the French nobility (1648–1720) by John Simon, pubd c. 1704 (after Philip de Graves) © National Portrait Gallery, London

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Massue de Ruvigny, Henri de, earl of Galway, and marquess of Ruvigny in the French nobility (1648–1720), Huguenot leader, army officer, and diplomat, was born in Paris, probably in the Faubourg St Germain, on 9 April 1648, the eldest son of five surviving children of ...

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Maurice, prince palatine of the Rhine (1621–1652) by William Dobson, 1645? © reserved

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Maurice, prince palatine of the Rhine (1621–1652), royalist army officer and naval officer, was the fourth son of Frederick V (1596–1632), elector palatine of the Rhine, and his wife, Elizabeth (1596–1662), daughter of James VI and I of Great Britain and sister of ...

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See Nassau van Zuylestein, William Frederick [Willem Frederik] van, first earl of Rochford

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Nassau van Zuylestein, William Frederick [Willem Frederik] van, first earl of Rochford (1649–1708), soldier and diplomat, was born at Zuylestein near Utrecht and baptized on 7 October 1649 at The Hague, the elder son of Frederik van Nassau van Zuylestein and his wife, ...